Distinguishing what is real and what is not is a part of life. But to distinguish one from the other, one must choose how. This choice is based on whether that person relies more heavily on their senses like George Berkeley, or their mind, like Descartes. Despite the differences, each way of knowing reaches a common goal, discerning the truth and what is believed to be true. The senses cannot give us a true representation of truth, so reason should be used. Using the knowledge issues to what extent can we achieve certainty starting with our own minds and to what extent do our senses give us knowledge of the world as it really is, how the different ways of knowing help us distinguish truth will be conveyed, answering how reason and perception can differentiate between something that is a justified true belief or something that is believed to be true. Senses merely form an idea of what truth actually is. The senses observe, but they cannot give one knowledge of the world as it truly is. For example, Copernicus lived in the 1500s, where people believed in the Ptolemaic model because it agreed with their senses. Ptolemy said that the earth was in the center of the universe and it did not move. People did not sense the earth moving, so they believed him. An empiricist, George Berkeley questioned material reality. He believed that we cannot know any more of the world than we perceive through our senses. If Berkeley had lived throughout this time, he would have perceived that the earth does not move. He thought that the only things that exist are the things that we perceive. Meaning, one cannot perceive the earth moving. But Copernicus believed in a heliocentric model, where Earth and other planets rotated around the sun. He used mathematics and reason to develop this theory. Copernicus too did not feel the earth, but he denied his senses. He knew that there were twenty-four hours in a day and as the year progresses, the seasons change. This led him to believe that the earth rotated on its axis as it rotated around the sun. The Copernican model was right. Proving that our senses are only a perception of what is true or what is believed to be. Sense perception cannot truly help us distinguish between what is true and what is believed to be true because it only gives us an idea of the truth. Truth comes by reason. To be certain, one needs reason because our senses will only take us so far. If something appears to be moving on its own, one’s senses would conclude that the object is moving on its own. But with reason, one would achieve certainty by knowing that objects cannot move by themselves unless acted on by an opposing force. We can achieve certainty with our
FINDING EXAMPLES FOR YOUR TOK ESSAY
The search for "real, specific and detailed examples"
To summarise, your examples should be:
real, specific, detailed, individual, accurate, referenced, analysed, relevant
There are also things to avoid. See THINGS TO AVOID. (below) These include:
meaningless statements, generalisations, pseudo-examples, stereotypes, dictionary definitions, cliches, ToK textbooks, extreme statements, relativism
That which can be asserted without evidence…
wrote it as their point of view that implicated lots of hidden information. Historians must search different archives in order to verify if this information given was true or false. The same thing happened to me when I’m researching to do my Extended Essay, when a certain topic is Googled, we tend to always search for the top three pages. There must be verification, because to state important facts, there has to be a use of minimum of six different sites so that this information can be declared as something…
individuals as opposed to others. A personal attribute is a ‘characteristic quality or feature of a person or thing’1 which includes the concepts of culture, experiences, education, as well as biological characteristics such as gender and age. This essay will discuss how these Ways of Knowing can be affected by these features, since this is of major importance to our society’s wellbeing, especially in politics and even daily conflicts between family and friends.
One of these ways is the ‘physical…
“The possession of knowledge carries an ethical responsibility.” Everyday we gain knowledge, either on purpose or by accident. Every time we acquire some new information we are left with the thought of whether we should express it with others of not. I believe that the possession of knowledge does carry an ethical responsibility when presented in certain situations. Nevertheless, this claim also brings certain knowledge issues. Why should knowing something lead to ethical responsibility? Is it an…
Topic: Reason is no more universal than any other way of knowing. They are different kinds of rationalities, all of which are equal value.
Reason is traditionally portrayed as the opposite of emotion in terms of the acquisition of knowledge; it is the cause, the explanation, or justification for an action or event. Reason is no more universal than any other way of knowing. There are more ways of knowing, beyond only reason. The different ways of knowing that are of equal value in the universe…
The percentage of U.S. women overdosing on prescription painkillers has increased sharply in recent years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Between 1999 and 2010, the proportion of deaths from painkiller overdose increased 400 percent among women, while rising 265 percent among men.
“Prescription painkiller deaths have skyrocketed in women," Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, said at a news conference today (July 2). "Mothers, wives, sisters and daughters are dying…
“My autobiography as a thinker”
Do you ever wonder what type of knower you are visual, kinesthetic, or logical? Are you judgmental, extrovert, perceiving, introvert, intra-personal or interpersonal? Well, I tend to be a visual, interpersonal knower, which I think, is beneficial because you really visually see everything in the world and you learn about something specifically by actually seeing it and by communicating with others because in reality you don’t know everything…
whether there are other forms of acquiring knowledge besides the two listed above. This will be accomplished using reason and perception. I will use the human sciences to go with reason and intuition in order to bring in a different perspective into my essay. My main argument that experiments require both experimentation and observation in order to find a solution to the problem. There is a correlation to both, but what other factors can be considered for learning new information. My real life situation…
Marijuana should be Legal
In the year 2013 it had been a highly successful year for legalizing marijuana within the United States. Now that Colorado and Washington have accepted the drug 58 percent of American citizens are now accepting the drug as well. There are countless of reasons as to why marijuana should be legalized in all states. Marijuana should be legal in all states because it is much safer than other legalized drugs, can be used as a sleep aid, and can be used…
about a proposition (Statement that is true/false):
-The cat is on the mat
- it is raining
- Every event has a cause
- So, someone says P is true, someone else disagrees
We need a way to test/verify various knowledge claims
Possible essay topic:
Discuss the characteristics and the merits of the three different truth tests and how they might intertwine in some way.
Correspondence- Empiricism (observation/experience)
Coherence- Rationalism (only reason/consistency)