Distinguishing what is real and what is not is a part of life. But to distinguish one from the other, one must choose how. This choice is based on whether that person relies more heavily on their senses like George Berkeley, or their mind, like Descartes. Despite the differences, each way of knowing reaches a common goal, discerning the truth and what is believed to be true. The senses cannot give us a true representation of truth, so reason should be used. Using the knowledge issues to what extent can we achieve certainty starting with our own minds and to what extent do our senses give us knowledge of the world as it really is, how the different ways of knowing help us distinguish truth will be conveyed, answering how reason and perception can differentiate between something that is a justified true belief or something that is believed to be true. Senses merely form an idea of what truth actually is. The senses observe, but they cannot give one knowledge of the world as it truly is. For example, Copernicus lived in the 1500s, where people believed in the Ptolemaic model because it agreed with their senses. Ptolemy said that the earth was in the center of the universe and it did not move. People did not sense the earth moving, so they believed him. An empiricist, George Berkeley questioned material reality. He believed that we cannot know any more of the world than we perceive through our senses. If Berkeley had lived throughout this time, he would have perceived that the earth does not move. He thought that the only things that exist are the things that we perceive. Meaning, one cannot perceive the earth moving. But Copernicus believed in a heliocentric model, where Earth and other planets rotated around the sun. He used mathematics and reason to develop this theory. Copernicus too did not feel the earth, but he denied his senses. He knew that there were twenty-four hours in a day and as the year progresses, the seasons change. This led him to believe that the earth rotated on its axis as it rotated around the sun. The Copernican model was right. Proving that our senses are only a perception of what is true or what is believed to be. Sense perception cannot truly help us distinguish between what is true and what is believed to be true because it only gives us an idea of the truth. Truth comes by reason. To be certain, one needs reason because our senses will only take us so far. If something appears to be moving on its own, one’s senses would conclude that the object is moving on its own. But with reason, one would achieve certainty by knowing that objects cannot move by themselves unless acted on by an opposing force. We can achieve certainty with our…
There are many ways you can interpret language. Language means something different to everyone and therefore there are many pros and cons that come with it. Since language is different everywhere it creates a lot of controversy. People use language as a way of knowing, we use words for everything and we use them…
FINDING EXAMPLES FOR YOUR TOK ESSAY
The search for "real, specific and detailed examples"
To summarise, your examples should be:
real, specific, detailed, individual, accurate, referenced, analysed, relevant
There are also things to avoid. See THINGS TO AVOID. (below) These include:
meaningless statements, generalisations, pseudo-examples, stereotypes, dictionary definitions, cliches, ToK textbooks, extreme statements, relativism
That which can be asserted without evidence…
9 Tips for ToK Presentations – Nick Alchin
There is no general method or formula which is "correct." You can probably ignore some of this advice and still do a good presentation… but following these suggestions may help.
1. Familiarize yourself with the assessment criteria. Notice, for example that whatever your topic, the focus must be on knowledge issues and that you should choose a contemporary issue (or at least one that is contemporary to you: a historical event that you're studying in…
Theory of Knowledge
Question – 4
“That what is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow”.
Consider knowledge issue raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge.
Examination Session: - May 2014
School Code: - 002272
School Name: - Indus International School, Bangalore
Candidate Number: - 002272-0091
Name: - Nidhey A Pan
Word Count: - 1471
“That what is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow”. Consider knowledge issue raised…
wrote it as their point of view that implicated lots of hidden information. Historians must search different archives in order to verify if this information given was true or false. The same thing happened to me when I’m researching to do my Extended Essay, when a certain topic is Googled, we tend to always search for the top three pages. There must be verification, because to state important facts, there has to be a use of minimum of six different sites so that this information can be declared as something…
Sawyer, Period B
final draft Tok journal 3, prompt 20
Word count: 517
To what extent do you think we are able to control our emotions? Which emotion is the
most difficult to control? Why?
It is clear that human beings need to have healthy selfesteems to live a healthy social life
interacting with other people as well as a developed retrospective mechanisms to be able to
function in a modern day society. The emotions are the…
“My autobiography as a thinker”
Do you ever wonder what type of knower you are visual, kinesthetic, or logical? Are you judgmental, extrovert, perceiving, introvert, intra-personal or interpersonal? Well, I tend to be a visual, interpersonal knower, which I think, is beneficial because you really visually see everything in the world and you learn about something specifically by actually seeing it and by communicating with others because in reality you don’t know everything…
whether there are other forms of acquiring knowledge besides the two listed above. This will be accomplished using reason and perception. I will use the human sciences to go with reason and intuition in order to bring in a different perspective into my essay. My main argument that experiments require both experimentation and observation in order to find a solution to the problem. There is a correlation to both, but what other factors can be considered for learning new information. My real life situation…
about a proposition (Statement that is true/false):
-The cat is on the mat
- it is raining
- Every event has a cause
- So, someone says P is true, someone else disagrees
We need a way to test/verify various knowledge claims
Possible essay topic:
Discuss the characteristics and the merits of the three different truth tests and how they might intertwine in some way.
Correspondence- Empiricism (observation/experience)
Coherence- Rationalism (only reason/consistency)
Natural Science (Hemple and Copi) Cram Sheet
The empirical sciences seek to do what four things?
(1) Control over the environment (2) apply to the real world (3) create new technology (4) explain and therefore gain knowledge Distinguishes the empirical from the non-empirical sciences?
Empirical science requires information and is inductive; it goes from specific cases to larger generalizations
Non-Empirical goes from very general to specific
Methods of obtaining empirical…