Natural Science (Hemple and Copi) Cram Sheet
The empirical sciences seek to do what four things?
(1) Control over the environment (2) apply to the real world (3) create new technology (4) explain and therefore gain knowledge Distinguishes the empirical from the non-empirical sciences?
Empirical science requires information and is inductive; it goes from specific cases to larger generalizations
Non-Empirical goes from very general to specific
Methods of obtaining empirical evidence?
We knowledge through observation and testing.
Primary aims of science?
Science seeks to understand the world and its phenomenon while also trying to control the natural world
What is “new” evidence? Give examples.
“New” evidence psychologically makes the hypothesis seem prophetic. “New” evidence is information that is gained after the hypothesis was created.
What is theoretical support?
Theoretical support is evidence from above. It is evidence that is deduced from the hypothesis. By extension it should be valid
Why is the narrow inductivist view flawed?
What is it?
It goes in four steps 1. Observe 2. Analyze 3. Hyp 4. Further tests (Repeat question?)
In order to gain a narrow scope every scientist has a preliminary hypothesis it is hard to go make a test without having an idea of the hyp.
It is impossible to achieve all data
It is unclear what is the best method of analysis is.
(1)He observed that there were two wards in the hospital one had a higher number of women who were affected by childbed fever.
(2) Hyp. Position, fear of the priest, environment, size, and examination procedure
(3)Test tested all of them to no avail and then found though that
Cadaveric Matter he saw that his friend died after dealing with a cadaver He said that contamination from cavadoric matter could lead to childbed fever
(4) if one cleaned them with chlorinated lime solution there would be no more putrid matter and less women died and he originated germ theory.
(1) He observed that buckets of water in a well only could pump water from a certain height
(2) He used a variety of pumps and saw the phenomenon happened a lot
(3) Hyp. That it was a sea of air that held the water up (what we call air pressure)
(4) Created the barometer with mercury to see if it would have a similar effect as water.
Definition: a testable idea
Quantity: large amount of tests that are in favor of the hypothesis.
Precision: better instrument to test the more likely we are to believe in the hypothesis
Variety: different types of tests give you a higher variety of evidence
Relevance: They must yield some connection with whatever they concern
Testability: Must be able to be tested
Compatible with Previously Well Established Hypothesis: They must adequately challenge or add to the hypothesis that we already