The following are the drawbacks of the presentation that were done earlier:
The definitions of QMS system and the outline structure for TQM is given. But there is no further explanation of what TQM is or any detailed description of the model.
There is no information regarding the implementation of TQM in higher education system in India.
Choosing a wide topic like higher education system in India might be arduous. The topic should be narrowed down to just a city or a particular university.
Unnecessary information such as suicide rate, etc. is given and all the necessary information is neglected.
Analysis of the internal and external customers, stakeholders, etc. is not done.
The next step would be to make modification and developments to the system so that the chances for sustainability will be more. The above mentioned drawbacks should be considered and improved upon.
Total Quality Management
TQM is defined as “a constant endeavour to fulfil and preferably exceed customer needs and expectations by making the costs lower, continues improvement, focusing on the processes, involving and committing everyone in an organization” (Klefsjö & Bergman, 2011). Over the years various researchers have considered TQM as a system, which can be used to control the management in any organisation, consisting of three co-dependent components namely values, methodologies and tools. The main aim of this system is to improve the internal and external customer satisfaction and reducing the amount of resource used to achieve that. The elements that are classified within the various components are given below (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Components of Management System View of TQM (Najafabadi, et al., 2008)
While implementing TQM in any organization, the involvement of the management and top leaders is very important as they determine the resources available, areas where improvement is necessary, goals to be achieved, etc. (Najafabadi, et al., 2008). They must also possess the following values:
Decisions based on facts
Commitment of everybody
The main aim of the company should be to fulfil the needs of the customers; both internal and external. So they should have a proper understanding of the requirements and anticipations of the customer. It should have the ability to take decisions which are completely based on facts so they should maintain a proper database with all the relevant facts. The set patterns that the companies focus in its manufacturing or functioning is called as process. The precise input is used to obtain the desired output. So the company should have a clear vision as to what output it should achieve overall. As time changes the demands of the external customer also changes; so the company should be capable of updating to new technologies and techniques to satisfy the needs of the customers. The most important thing in any working environment is the involvement and dedication of the entire staff and management to achieve the desired goals without which the company will fail. Methodologies:
Quality Function Deployment is a technique that identifies the needs of the customers and designs specifications and parameters that transforms these needs into service required by the customer (Burge , 2007). Policy Deployment is working on the objectives and controlling the business with continuous improvement ventures to reach the business goals (Lammers & Smith, 2004). An organisation consists of many different types of processes which work together to achieve the end result. The method of managing all these processes in such a way that they perform as desired is referred to as Process Management. Benchmarking is a process of self-evaluation and finding areas for improvement by comparing business practices and techniques with the competitors thus identifying the company’s strength and weaknesses (Dattakumar & Jagadeesh, 2003).