• This chapter focuses on instructional training methods
• Instructional Methods- the techniques used to stimulate learning, usually taken place in classroom or formal setting for a purpose of learning, usually combined into a program or course (seminar, workshop, symposium or conference)
• Below are the instructional methods which are ordered from more passive to more active learning and training
1. Lecture- a training method in which the trainer present to trainees the training content to be learned. o Advantages: Effective for training several types of skills and tasks. Large amounts of info can be provided in short period of times at minimal expense, making it efficient. Everyone is given the same message at the same time. o Disadvantages: Not effective for the development of skills or changing attitudes. It does not accommodate trainee’s ability to absorb information. Forced to be passive learners. To overcome the disadvantages discussion, questions and answers, and other opportunities trainee involvement.
Tips for use: o Set specific objectives o Should arrange the information in a logical manner o Transcribe notes onto paper o Break into segments (15 mins) whole vs. part learning o Have stories, case incidents, graphic, humor, trainee presentations, videos and question-and-answer sessions
2. Discussion- two-way communication between the trainer and trainees as well as among trainees. Primary ways to increase trainee involvement in the learning process. The purpose it to:
1. Helps trainees recognize what they do not know but should know.
2. Opportunity for trainees to get answers to questions
3. Allows trainees to get advice on concerns
4. Allows trainees to share ideas and derive a common wisdom
5. It’s a way for trainees to learn about one another as people o Advantages: good way to develop critical thinking skills, social and interpersonal skills are also enhanced. o Disadvantages: many remain silent or don’t participate in large group discussions and some many dominate. They also take up a lot of time.
Tips for use: o Create a participative culture o Reflect questions back to group o Draw out unwilling members o Keep focus on topic o Control dominant members roles o Keep groups small (4-6) o Assign well-defined tasks, with time frames o Positive reinforcement is critical
3. Case Study- a training method in which trainees discuss, analyze, and solve problems based on a real situation (complex). Primary use of the case study method is to encourage open discussion and analysis of problems and events. The objectives of a case study are:
1. Introduce realism into trainees learning
2. Deal with a variety of problems, goals, facts, conditions, and conflicts that often occur in the real world
3. Teach how to make decisions
4. Teach creativity and think independently o Teaches trainees to think for themselves and develop analytical and problem solving skills o Brings more attention and effort bringing in more transfer of training
4. Case Incident- a training method in which one problem or issue is presented for analysis o Useful when want to focus on one topic or concept o Advantages: reduces the need for prep and reading, members can use personal experience o Disadvantage: some members may lack the background knowledge o Divide the members into groups and given them each a role or divide the members into a group and have them each read the case and answer questions and have a discussion
5. Behaviour Modelling – a training method in which trainees observe a model performing a task and then attempt to imitate or replicate the observed behaviour o Advantages: most widely used and researched, good for interpersonal development (negotiation, communication, etc) o Based on 4 learning principles:
1. Observation (modelling)
2. Rehearsal (practice)
3. Reinforcement (reward)