By marie gillen 5/3/2013
Backgroung study-pavios ‘dual coding theory’
Aim-this study aims to investigate if using pictures of images results beter recall than the use of words alone. Proposing imagry makes information easyer to store and recall when asked to do so. Following a similar approach to bowers study.
Independent variable-the independent variable in my study is that one group were given a flash card which had two images one of an object and one of an animal. In return the other group were given a flash card which only held the text of the two same nouns.
Dependant variable- the dependant varable was the amount of words that could be recalled. There were 20 in total nouns to be memorised. The participents were asked to recall after 1 minuite. I was able to take each individuals score and come up with a percentage of there words recalled for both groups allowing me to compare and record.
Alternative hypothesis-using the flash card with images on it will show an increase in memory recall than the flash card with words alone.
Null hypothesis-having the picture on the cards in compared to nouns only will show no discernible impact on the results to the memorisation recall.
Sampling technique-opportunity sampling
Results- the results showed that on average the group that were givin the cards with nouns only scored 10 (rounded up from 10.3) on recall. The group with images on the cards scored 16 (rounded up from 15.5) on recall. The alternative hypothesis was shown as correct while the null hypothesis was rejected.
My results from this experiment show that memories can be better transfared more successfully from stm to ltm when using the use of images compared to words alone. rationale Memory refers to the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information. When psychologists study memory they usually focus on three main questions; How does the information get into are memory? , How is it maintained? , And how do we recall when needed? These processes are called encoding, storage and retrieval.
In order to form new memories, information must be changed into a usable form which occurs through the processes of encoding, once information has been successfully encoded, it must be stored in memory for later use. Much of this information lies outside of are awareness, most of the time, except when we need to use it. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories into conscious awareness. Memory can degrade quickly. Psychologists estimate that we forget 80%of what we’ve learned within 24 hours. To be able to recall new information at a later date for, say, an exam, a student must transfer new information from short term to long term memory. Several strategies can help in doing so.
In 1972 Bowers conducted a study on visual imagery. As part of his research into memory techniques, bower studied the effect of creating a visual image to aid verbal recall. In one of his experiments Bowers gave willing participants a test, giving each of the participants 100 flash cards, at one time, each card had two different words, for example, cat and tree. The participants then had to either memory the pair of words or they were asked to create a visual image or a seen linking the two together for eg, a cat stuck up a tree. When given a recall test bowers proved his theory, recalling of the imagery showed higher recall results by 80% while using just the words brought the result of 45%.
The design I choose was based on the technique bowers used, based on the theory that imagery helps us rember information for later recall, as we can process it easier than words alone. I chose to follow along the same study as I felt it was easy replicated and to ultranate using the facilities that I can personally acquire. I will carry out my experiment using 6 different participants. The design I wish