Transgenic Organisms Essay

Submitted By mariah2457
Words: 302
Pages: 2

Because genes are so universally similar, it is possible to transfer genes from one organism to another. Organisms produced by such a process are called genetically modified organisms or transgenic organisms. The term genetically modified organisms refer to not only plants and animals, but also bacteria. Transgenic organisms are created by gene insertion, gene deletion, or gene replication. In a normal gene, gene replacement results in only the implanted gene being active. Gene insertion results in no active gene being present. And gene insertion results in both the normal and transplanted gene being active. A foreign or modified gene is called a transgene. In making transgenic plants, scientists usually use modified Agrobacterium to insert the transgene, or inject DNA directly into a plant cell. In the making of transgenic animals, scientists often insert the transgene directly into the animal’s egg cell, due to animal cells being relatively large. Once the transgenes enter an organism, enzymes that normally repair DNA, helps insert the new DNA fragment into the organism’s genes. One example of a transgenic organism is the C5 plum. The C5 has been engineered to have resistance to a specific virus known as Plum Pox or Sharka. The virus affects the entire plant and causes it to produce a decreased amount of fruit, and most of the fruit produced are deformed. To create a plant that was resistant to Sharka, scientists collected the genes for the virus protein coat, which