Trauma: Psychological Trauma and Dr. Roxanne Dryden Essay

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The cather in the rye/ Macbeth
1. Psychological trauma
-a type of damage occurs as a result of a severely distressing event
-leads to posttraumatic stress disorder
(outside)-damage may involve physical changes inside the brain
*(inside)-brain chemistry, changes the person's response to future stress
2. What is emotional and psychological trauma?
- the result of extraordinarily stressful events that shatter people’s sense of security, making people feel helpless and vulnerable in a dangerous world.
Traumatic experiences often involve a threat to life or safety, but any situation that leaves people feeling overwhelmed and alone can be traumatic, even if it doesn’t involve physical harm. It’s not the objective facts that determine whether an event is traumatic, but your subjective emotional experience of the event. The more frightened and helpless you feel, the more likely you are to be traumatized.
3. Causes of emotional or psychological trauma
An event will most likely lead to emotional or psychological trauma if: - happened unexpectedly. - unprepared for it. -felt powerless to prevent it. | - happened repeatedly. -Someone was intentionally cruel. -happened in childhood. |

Emotional and psychological trauma can be caused by single-blow, one-time events, such as a horrible accident, a natural disaster, or a violent attack. Trauma can also stem from ongoing, relentless stress, such as living in a crime-ridden neighborhood or struggling with cancer.
4.Commonly overlooked causes of emotional and psychological trauma -Falls or sports injuries -Surgery (especially in the first 3 years of life) -The sudden death of someone close -A car accident | -The breakup of a significant relationship -A humiliating or deeply disappointing experience -The discovery of a life-threatening illness or disabling condition |

What are the symptoms of psychological trauma?
Many people have strong emotional or physical reactions following experience of a traumatic event. For most, these reactions subside over a few days or weeks.
For some, the symptoms may last longer and be more severe. This may be due to several factors such as the nature of the traumatic event, the level of available support, previous and current life stress, personality, and coping resources.
Symptoms of trauma:physical, cognitive (thinking), behavioural (things we do) and emotional. Physical | * Excessive alertness, on the look-out for signs of danger过度警惕 * Easily startled * Fatigue/exhaustion * Disturbed sleep * General aches and pains | Cognitive
(thinking) | * Intrusive thoughts and memories of the event * Visual images of the event * Nightmares * Poor concentration and memory * Disorientation * Confusion | Behavioural | * Avoidance of places or activities that are reminders of the event * Social withdrawal and isolation * Loss of interest in normal activities | Emotional | * Fear * Numbness and detachment * Depression * Guilt * Anger and irritability * Anxiety and panic | As long as they are not too severe or last for too long, the symptoms described above are normal reactions to trauma. Although these symptoms can be distressing, they will settle quickly in most people. They are part of the natural healing process of adjusting to a very powerful event, making some sense out of what happened, and putting it into perspective. With understanding and support from family, friends and colleagues the stress symptoms usually resolve more rapidly. A minority of people will develop more serious conditions such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, or alcohol and drug problems.
Tips on managing psychological trauma * Recognise that you have been through a distressing experience and give yourself permission to experience some reaction to it. Don't be angry with yourself for being upset. * Remind yourself that you are not abnormal and that you can and