Friday, December 13, 9:00 – 11:00am, Lincoln Hall Theater. The exam will be 80 questions, multiple choice. You may use a calculator; however, CELL
PHONE USE IS PROHIBITED. Please bring a #2 pencil and your I-Card to the exam.
Study aids: This sheet, lecture notes, textbook. Learn and be able to apply concepts; do NOT simply memorize facts. Questions? Come to office hours, ask your TA, post to the discussion board on Compass, attend a review session (Thursday, 2:00-4:00; 4:00-6:00; 6:00-8:00). FROM BEFORE:
• What is the difference between satellites and radar?
-Satellites: views clouds from space
-radar: views precipitation from ground
• How is wind direction defined?
-Wind direction is identified by the direction FROM which the wind is blowing
• How do winds blow about high and low pressure systems in the Northern Hemisphere? • What is pressure and how does it change with height?
-Pressure ALWAYS decreases with height
-as you go up through the atmosphere, there are less and less molecules above you, so weight of column above that level (pressure) decreases
-Pressure = Weight/Area
-Pressure = Force/Area
• What is an inversion?
-Layer in which the temperature INCREASES with height
• What is latent heat?
-The energy absorbed or released during a phase change (“Hidden” energy)
• What is advection?
-Advection: transfer of heat (or moisture) through HORIZONTAL movement of air 찬공기 수평류
• What is saturation? What mathematical relationships are true at saturation?
- The water vapor concentration in the air at which evaporation and condensation rates are equal
• What is relative humidity? How can it be changed?
-Ratio of water vapor in air (VP) to that required for saturation (SVP): VP/SVP*100
-↑RH does NOT necessarily mean there is more moisture in the air ↑RH = closer to saturation
-Increase relative humidity: Add moisture to the air (increase VP) Cool the air (decrease SVP)
-Decrease relative humidity: Remove moisture from the air (decrease VP) Warm the air (increase SVP)
• What is dewpoint? Why is it useful?
-A higher dew point always means there is more moisture in the air
-Dewpoint is always less than or equal to the temperature
• How do clouds form?
-Billions of microscopic water droplets or ice crystals
• How do you read a station model? Read the axes What are those lines? Temperature is always on the right; Dewpoint temperature is always on the left Look at the temperature line -Temperature generally DECREASES with height but NOT always -Temperature inversion occurs when temperature INCREASES with height Some important vocab -Surface: ground; It will always be the lowest point on the map -Dewpoint depression (DPD): tells you how humid a pressure layer is; DPD = T (@ certain pressure level) – Td (@ certain pressure level); If T-Td≈0°C, it’s a humid layer, if T-Td≥20°C, it’s a dry layer Wind direction Wind speed Just have to find the top of the troposphere
• Know the locations of the 50 US states, oceans, and the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains.
• What is a constant pressure surface? Upper-air maps; map has same pressure everywhere; height varies
• How are low and high heights related to temperature and weather?
High heights- high temp Low heights—low temp
• How do you identify ridges and troughs?
Ridges—high heights—warm air below 산등성이 Trough—low heights—cold air below 골
• What is the pressure gradient force? In what direction does it act?
PGF=different in pressure/ distance From high to low
• How does the pressure gradient force influence the wind speed?
To show wind speeds, the pressure gradient is plotted onto weather maps using isobars mapped between areas of high and low pressure. Bars spaced far apart represent a gradual pressure gradient and light winds. Those closer together show a steep pressure