Dana Painter 000339195
In a world of known and unknown organism’s that cause disease and death, we continue to research to provide possible treatment’s to eradicate potentially fatal diseases. “Tuberculosis, or TB, is a disease that has been around for more than 4000 years.” (“Brief history of tuberculosis” http://www.umdnj.edu/ntbcweb/history, 1 March 2010). Following the launch of an international effort to tackle tuberculosis, it remains one of the major causes of death around the world as millions of people continue to be undiagnosed. It could be fear, stigma, poverty and ailing health systems that contribute to the continued fatal cases of TB. ("World Health Organization-Tuberculosis," 2014)
Asia has been reported to have the most new cases of TB along with the African population, who still has the most cases of TB-related deaths. The World Health Organization website notes that TB in developed countries is not as widespread.
2012 TB statistics reflect that over eight million people fell ill with TB and of those, over one million were among people living with HIV. Individuals who are immunocompromised are at greater risk for acquiring an infection, including TB. Higher rates of TB have been found in underprivileged areas of a community. TB many times occurs among poversihed people living in overcrowded areas. As a result of people living without adequate resources, such as adequate nutrition, this may result in diminished immune function. In overcrowded living conditions with poor hygiene, the risk of transmission of TB increases. (Dye & Floyd, 2006) The World Health Organization reported that the TB mortality rate has decreased since 1990 with the 2015 global target of a 50% reduction rate. With education and greater access to health care, counties that adopted the WHO TB strategy, continue to see a decline in newly reported cases. ("WHO Tuberculosis," 2014)
TB is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is an airborne disease. TB is not treated correctly, it can be a fatal disease. TB most often affects the lungs. It can also be present in the spine, kidneys, brains, or intestines. When people who are sick with TB in their lungs and cough or sneeze, the TB germs are thrust into the air. It only takes a few of the germs to become infected. Individuals who have a compromised immune system stand a greater chance of becoming infected with TB.
Drugs to fight TB have been available for years but when individuals who don’t complete a treatment regime or consistent treatment, then a drug-resistant TB can immerge. The multidrug-resistant TB is very dangerous because it is resistant to the more powerful drugs for TB, Isoniazid and Rifampicin, which have long been considered the first line of defense to fight TB. BCG is a vaccine for TB but is not widely used in the United States; however, it is utilized for infants and small children in countries where TB is seen more often; however, it is not always effective.
Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. About 35% of the population has TB in a latent form. Latent TB is when an individual has become infected with the germ that causes TB but has not become sick with the disease and cannot transmit the disease. You may have a positive TB skin test after TB exposure and your physician may decide that you do need the TB treatment of medications to insure that TB does not become active. Individuals who have a positive TB test have likely been exposed to the TB causing bacteria. When someone is exposed to TB, the immune system can inhibit the germ by creating a wall it. The TB germ stays alive but is inactive. People with the latent TB infection don't have symptoms of TB and can’t spread the disease to others.
People who are infected with TB have a slim chance of becoming ill within their lifetime. However, if individuals have an immune system that is compromised, such as cancer or people living with HIV, malnourishment or