Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and help to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells, for example, tend to have horizontal flattened, elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. They form the lining of cavities such as the mouth, blood vessels, heart and lungs and make up the outer layers of the skin.
As their name implies, cuboidal cells are roughly square or cuboidal in shape. Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes.
Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers. The cells are elongated and column-shaped. The nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. Some columnar cells are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete mucus or slime, a lubricating substance which keeps the surface smooth.
Columnar epithelium with goblet cells is called glandular epithelium. Some parts of the glandular epithelium consist of such a large number of goblet cells that there are only a few normal epithelial cells left. Columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells often become specialised as gland cells which are capable of synthesising and secreting certain substances such as enzymes, hormones, milk, mucus, sweat, wax and saliva. Unicellular glands consist of single, isolated glandular cells such as the goblet cells. Sometimes a portion of the epithelial tissue becomes invaginated and a multicellular gland is formed. Multicellular glands are composed of clusters of cells. Most glands are multicellular including the the salivary glands.
Where body linings have to withstand wear and tear, the epithelia are composed of several layers of cells and are then called compound or stratified epithelium. The top cells are flat and scaly and it may or may not be keratinised (i.e. containing a tough, resistant protein called keratin). The mammalian skin is an example of dry, keratinised, stratified epithelium. The lining of the mouth cavity is an example of an unkeratinisied, stratified epithelium.
Fibrous connective tissue, loosely packed, to hold tissue layers together.
Fatty tissue; type of loose connective tissue that stores energy, insulates and cushions the body.
Tissue composed of bundles of collagenous white fibers between which are rows of connective tissue cells.
Most rigid connective tissue, Internally supports body structures, very active tissue, heals much more rapidly than cartilage.
Dense, flexible tissue similar to bone tissue.
Constists of blood cells surounded by nonliving fluid matrix called plasma. funcion:transport vehicle for cardiovascular system, carrying nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, and many other subs thru body.
Produces blood cells that are added to the circulating blood, removes worn out blood cells from the blood stream, red bone marrow, lymphatic tissue, yellow bone marrow.
Smooth muscle tissue is made up of thin-elongated muscle cells, fibres. These fibres are pointed at their ends and each has a single, large, oval nucleus. Each cell is filled with a specialised cytoplasm, the sarcoplasm and is surrounded by a thin cell membrane, the sarcolemma. Each cell has many myofibrils which lie parallel to one another in the direction of the long