Oxford High School
Typhoid Fever is rampant communicable disease that is easily spread through contact. Typhoid Fever is also known as Salmonella Typhi (or S. Typhi as it appears in the paper), it is in the same genus as the Salmonella that causes food poisoning (Carson-Dewitt 2011). Salmonella Typhi is acquired by coming into contact with the stool or urine of symptomatic patients. Also 3% of patients who have recovered from Typhoid Fever become carriers; they show no symptoms but continue to spread the disease (Carson-Dewitt). Typhoid Fever is spread very easily in countries where water is close to bathroom areas. The stool, or urine gets in the water, the water carriers the disease, others drink the water and become infected. It is commonly found in countries such as Mexico, Peru, Chile, India, and Pakistan (Carson-Dewitt).
Typhoid Fever is easily preventable. There is a vaccine for Typhoid Fever but it is not 100% effective (Carson-Dewitt). The safest way to prevent it is to watch what you eat or drink. You can boil your food, peel it, or cook it which will kill off these bacteria. Through safe food handling you can help prevent this disease. In industrialized parts of the world such as The United States, Typhoid Fever is a rare occurrence because we have sewage treatment systems in effect keeping us safe from the diseases inside of fecal matter and urine. The problem is when U.S citizens travel outside the United States we are so used to eating whatever we want without fear of disease that we do not remain vigilant.
The signs of Typhoid fever are simple; you feel flu like spytoms and have a high fever. Typhoid fever is treated with courses of antibiotics. The only problem with this treatment is that the S. Typhi is more commonly appearing to be resistant to certain antibiotics. This is most common in people who are often on antibiotics. Close to 200,000 people die every year if it is left untreated. If you are found to be infected it is vital that you wash your hands often and avoid working with foods or any other objects that people may consume.
The progression of Typhoid fever occurs in stages. Stage one, or week one you show a fluctuating fever and can experience abdominal pain, bloody noses, headaches and coughing. In the first week a Widal test is negative but blood cultures and positive for the bacteria (Carson-Dewitt). In week two delirium is common, along with rose spots appearing on the abdomen and Rhonchi (a wheezing like noise) are heard in the lungs. Diarrhea can occur up to six to eight times a day. The Widal test is strongly positive at this stage in the infection. In week three it is common to see intestinal bleeding, which is very serious but usually not fatal. Perforation of the intestines can occur this is serious and frequently fatal, hallucinations can occur, fever is constant. After week three symptoms begin to subside as you overcome the infection.
Typhoid is a disease that the world is working together to combat. Developing countries are working on better methods of sewage disposal and removal to prevent feces coming into contact with drinking water and food. People should boil or peel their food if possible before consumption this will kill off the bacteria. There are currently two vaccines out there for S. Typhi, Vivotif and Typhim V. Both are 50-80% affective, although Vivotif is given orally with a live form of the virus. Typhim V. is a shot that takes about two weeks to take effect. Vivotif is taken in 4 pills, one every two days and takes about one week to build up immunity (Carson-Dewitt). Both do not last forever; they require a five year booster vaccine. Since these are both not 100% effective it is best to wash your hands and eat cooked food.
Typhoid Fever when it is treated properly is not fatal in most cases. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly