Harvard Style Referencing 2008
Contents Page No.
1. Why do I need to reference my work? 3 1.1 So tell me briefly how it works 3
2. Referring to an author’s viewpoint in your text 4 2.1 Single and multiple authors – summarising and quoting 4 2.2 Author published 2 items in the same year 5 2.3 Author is an organisation (corporate authors) 5 2.4 Author’s name not given 5 2.5 Secondary referencing (authors quoting other authors) 5
3. Writing your reference list for printed texts - general notes 6 3.1 Books with one or more authors 7 3.2 Works by one author, translated/edited/commented on (etc.) by another 7 3.3 Chapters in edited books 8 3.4 Journal articles 8 3.5 Conference proceedings and single conference papers 9 3.6 Government or other Official Publications 9 3.7 British Standards 10 3.8 Theses 10 3.9 Unpublished (informal) works, including handouts 10
4. Referencing films, illustrations, maps, music and sound 11 4.1 Films and videos 11 4.2 Illustrations – physical and computer generated 11 4.3 Maps 11 4.4 Published music and recorded sound 12
5. Referencing electronic sources - general notes 13 5.1 Home pages on the web 14 5.2 Entire documents or services 14 5.3 Specific parts of documents or services 15 5.4 Contribution to an item within an electronic document or service 16 5.5 Electronic journals – the entire publication run 17 5.6 Electronic journals – whole issues 17 5.7 Electronic journals – articles and other contributions 18 5.8 British Standards 18 5.9 Bulletin boards, discussion lists and messaging systems 19 5.10 Individual electronic messages and phone calls 19 5.11 Television programmes, contributions and advertisements 20
6. Referencing unrecorded sources 22
7. Example of a reference list 23
8. Further help 23
1. Why do I need to reference my work?
Good referencing enables readers to find any publication referred to in your document quickly and easily – which gives you credibility. If you don't do it, your work is immediately downgraded in value. If you do it badly, you lose respect (and easy marks). If you intend doing research, you either use a proper referencing system or change careers. In short, it's important - and this guide will help you to get it right. Wolverhampton mainly supports the Harvard referencing system, but other systems do exist. Check with your School for the one they recommend. Whatever style you use, it is important to be clear, consistent and correct, making sure you include all the relevant details.
1.1 So tell me briefly how it works If you summarise, refer to, or quote from an author's work in your document, you must acknowledge your source, otherwise you are guilty of plagiarising (a form of cheating). In Harvard, you do this by putting these brief details before or after your quote: Author's surname, followed by the publication year of the document in round brackets E.g: Stollery (1997) But your readers will need more information if they want to look at that source personally. So you put the extra details in a reference list – usually placed at the end of a chapter, or at the end