From: Secretary of Health, GuatemalaTo: Minister of Finance, GuatemalaIntroductionUndernutrition is a serious condition that imposes many health challenges for the vulnerable populations of Guatemala. Guatemala has the third highest rate of chronic malnutrition in the world with 54% of its population exhibiting signs of stunting1. The most prominent risk factors of undernutrition are micronutrient deficiencies of iron, and vitamin A2. The most highly affected populations are children under five, women who are pregnant or lactating, and those of indigenous descent3. Risk factors for this nutritional emergency can be attributed to poor infant feeding practices, high disease burden and limited education of the mother4. The effects of undernutrition expand into the education and productivity of children, which can impede future economic growth. Progress can be made in terms of prevention, promotion and treatment of the disease through fortification of food, education of mothers, and implementation of treatment initiatives such as prenatal treatment and fortification programs.Nature and Magnitude of the ProblemGuatemala has the highest percentage of chronically malnourished children in Latin America, and the third largest in the world. One in eight infants is born with a low birth weight5. Nearly half of the country's children suffer from chronic malnutrition, and over one third of child deaths under five are related to malnutrition6. In Latin American countries, Guatemala remains the only country unable to significantly decrease its rate of malnutrition over the past decade. Even compared to poorer countries like Haiti, Guatemala has less success in addressing this problem. Stunting in some communities is so commonplace that inhabitants fail to comprehend the widespread effects of undernutrition7.Although most of the population consumes enough calories, certain essential nutrients are deficient due to the normal Guatemalan diet of cereals and limited animal products8. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies due to iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency are prevalent in Guatemala. A consequence of iron deficiency is anemia, which affects 38% of children under five and 22% of pregnant women9. This deficiency can lead to the impairment of cognitive development and to poor school performance10. Vitamin A also affects children, and about 16 % of preschool aged children are deficient in vitamin A11. An estimated 1,500 deaths in Guatemala can be attributed annually to vitamin A deficiency. Another main cause of vitamin and mineral deficiencies is iodine. Only half of all households in Guatemala use iodized salt. This iodine deficiency results in nearly 67,000 children per year being born with a mental impairment12. Affected PopulationsPoor, indigenous, and rural communities have higher rates of undernourishment compared to their counterparts13. In particular, 64% of the poorest populations suffer from chronic malnutrition which is nearly four times the rate compared to the richest populations. Children from birth to 24 months have the highest prevalence of stunting14. This time frame is the critical period in which irreversible developmental damage can occur due to malnutrition. The health of mothers and their children are interrelated and uneducated mothers tend to be more undernourished, more likely to experience complications due to undernutrition and more apt to engender these conditions to their children15. Other vulnerable populations are the communities which constitute most of the indigenous population. The indigenous population is twice as likely to be undernourished compared to ladino (non-indigenous) populations16. Nearly 8 out of 10 indigenous children are stunted compared to 4 out of 10 ladino children. Risk FactorsThe three main risk factors include poor infant feeding practices, high disease burden, and limited education of the mother. Poor infant feeding practices can lead to undernutrition and lower productivity later
The rebel groups are continuing to grow each year because of the child abductions and recruitment of child soldiers. These children are then forced to participate in these paramilitary operations ensuring everlasting growing numbers.
Critique of Policy Options:
* To deploy activists of international peace-seeking agencies such as the Canadian International Development Agency to defend men and women on dangerous frontlines.
If these agencies focus mainly on young children and youth, these…
Policy Brief （Cambodia）
Part One: Strategic Objectives (in order of importance)
A. vita interests: ①.Post-colonial focus on preserving independence. ②.Preserve neutrality so as not to “import” the war
B. peripheral interests: ①.Limit Communist influence in Cambodia. ②. Prevent Communist guerrillas inside Cambodia from coming to power③.Seek a peaceful settlement to the Indochinese wars.
Part Two: Your Team’s Actions and Reactions
As a result of growing war in neighboring South Vietnam, we…
Assembling Your Policy Brief
BY TASHA MANIGAULT
ISSUES IN HEALTH POLICY AND MANAGEMENT
So, between 2009 and 2010, the adjustments of health care in contributed to more private health insurance enrollment and spending. Recent legislative and regulatory changes are also having a bearing on the nation’s health care finances. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is the most historic piece of legislation that is imposing upon the nation’s health care…
Adopting an Arts-Based Urban Revitalization Strategy for New Hudson
The purpose of this memo is for the Chief of Staff to make an urban revitalization case for tax dollars in order to construct a cultural facility in New Hudson. This policy brief proposes that undertaking an arts-based urban revitalization strategy will be effective in alleviating New Hudson’s existing economic struggles by weighing the pros and cons at hand. Examining North Adams as a model for an arts-based urban revitalization…
Discretionary Fiscal Policy The unrestricted changing of government disbursements or taxes
to reach national financial goals, such as extraordinary employment with price constancy.
Economic policy has characteristically been related with the profitable philosophies of “John
Maynard Keynes and what is now called traditional Keynesian analysis.” (Miller, 2014). In the
direction of Keynes and his followers, administration had to step in to raise combined request…
The Rising Tide
The City of Chula Vista Climate Change Adaptation Plan Policy Brief
Presented by the LGBTQ Homeless Youth Association
On behalf of the LGBTQ Homeless Youth Association I am writing to address significant challenges we face that are not necessarily recognized within The City of Chula Vista climate change adaptation plan. It is the consensus among LGBTQ homeless youth and the LGBTQ Homeless Youth Association organizers that the challenges we face…
Coordination Unit Support Visit Policy
In family day care, coordination unit staff work in partnership with carers to share information, discuss issues and ensure families and children are provided with quality child care. Relationships between coordination unit staff and carers need to convey respect, equity and recognition of the diverse strengths and skills that each brings to the partnership.
The establishment of effective communication practices and procedures between coordination unit…
Families are often faced with a range of different, complex health and psychosocial problems. Place-based approaches aim to address these complex problems by focusing on the social and physical environment of a community and on better integrated and more accessible service systems, rather than focusing principally on the problems faced by individuals. A place-based approach targets an entire community and aims to address issues that exist at the neighbourhood level, such as poor housing…
Some of the key issues responsible for the poor performance of many Government support programmes include the followings: Policy instability and inconsistency in policies are said to be one of the major constraints to the effectiveness of past agricultural policies in Nigeria (Manyong et al,…