When medical care or treatment is provided, medical practitioners are required in many situations to obtain a patient's "informed consent." But what does this term mean? What can happen if proper informed consent is not given? A Definition Although the specific definition of informed consent may vary from state to state, it basically means that a physician (or other medical provider) must tell a patient all of the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives involved in any surgical procedure, medical procedure, or other course of treatment, and must obtain the patient's written consent to proceed. The concept is based on the principle that a physician has a duty to disclose information to the patient so he or she can make a reasonable decision regarding treatment. The Role of the Physician Physicians themselves, rather than a representative, nurse, or other related health care professional, are the best choice to speak to the patient about informed consent. In discussing the matter with the patient, the physician should cover: The patient's diagnosis, if it is known. The nature and purpose of the proposed treatment or procedure. The benefits and the risks of that proposed treatment or procedure. The alternatives to the proposed treatment or procedure. Alternatives should be discussed regardless of their cost and regardless of whether they will likely be covered by the patient's health insurance. The risks and benefits of an alternative treatments or procedures. The risks and benefits of not receiving or undergoing any treatment or procedure. Note: A physician should also ensure that patients understand what they're hearing. In fact, some hospitals now require physicians to participate in courses on communication skills. The patient, or the patient's legally authorized representative consenting to the treatment on the patient's behalf, must sign and date the informed consent documents. The patient or the patient's legally authorized representative must be given a copy of the informed consent documents once they are signed and dated, and a copy should be placed in the patient's file. The Role of the Patient Although a physician is required to inform a patient about benefits, risks, and alternative treatments, patients must also play a part in the informed consent process. Patients must listen to the physician and should ask questions of the physician if they do not understand, or if they would like more detailed information. Example: You are a patient in a hospital being treated for a problem with your back. Your physician comes into your room and says, "John, you've got a herniated nucleus pulposus. Let's do a discectomy and to do that we'll start you off with some sodium thiopental, then hit you with a strong general anesthetic and wheel you into the OR. We'll hope that while you're under the knife you don't have a myocardial infarction. Sound good?" You should look your physician in the eye and say, "I have no idea what you just said so I won't say that plan sounds good. Explain it to me in detail and tell me exactly what all of those words mean." Situations in Which Informed Consent May Not Be Necessary Situations Not Involving Medical Procedures or Treatment. Not all situations require that informed consent be given. For example, although listening to a heartbeat through a stethoscope may be considered a "treatment" or "procedure," to some people (especially those who are uncomfortable in physician's offices), it's rare that a physician and patient would have a lengthy discussion about the benefits and risks of listening to a heartbeat using that device. In other situations, informed consent is an absolute necessity. For example, in any medical trials or experiments that receive federal funding, informed consent must be obtained from any human participant or subject. This requirement stems historically from the Nuremberg Trials that took place after World War II where the atrocities of Nazi medical experimentation on
A critical appraisal of a published piece of research related to practice.
Evidence Based Practice - HEN62029-5
Student number 10039687
Word count 3150
The following ssion of this assignment attempts to critically appraise the venUS III randomised control trial (RTC) published in the British Medical Journal.
As a student/healthcare worker who is new to critical appraisal I am aware that I do not fully understand some of the calculations involved in reporting of findings, however Greenhalgh…
253 Chapter 6 Evaluation Research Design: Literature Reviews & Synthesis Frequently a research question or hypothesis can be answered through secondary research, i.e., a literature review or synthesis. Both strategies requires the researcher to mine existing data sources; ―pull out‖ relevant data or information; summarize it; logically analyze and/or statistically treat it; and report results. In many instances, the issue, problem, question, etc. which prompted the idea for an evaluation study is…