Biology Study Guide

Submitted By Chris-Rhee
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Pages: 5

Biology Study Guide: Methodology Unit 1
MADE BY: Chris Rhee

Types of variables:
Independent Variable: Also known as the manipulated variable. It is the variable that is changed or manipulated by the scientist.
Dependent Variable: Also known as the responding variable. It is the variable that is affected by the independent variable.
Control Variable: The variable that nothing is done to better see the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Standardized Variable: The variables that are kept the same throughout the experiment.
Extraneous Variable: The variables that cannot be controlled such as the weather.
Characteristics of a good Hypothesis:
It must contain the independent and the dependent variable and must be a complete sentence.
Characteristics of Life:
Shows organization:
Cell  Tissue  Organs  Organ Systems  Organism
Uses asexual or sexual reproduction to create new organisms.
Grows and Develops:
Growth: Change in size. Ex.: Getting taller.
Develop: Changes that occur as an organism grows. Ex.: Puberty.
Stable Internal Environment:
Homeostasis: Constant internal condition. Ex.: Sweating when hot.
Change Over Time:
Evolution: Changes to adapt to the environment. Population is the smallest unit to evolve.
Universal Genetic Code:
DNA: The code for producing protein.
Obtain and Use Materials and Energy:
Producers: Makes their own food and energy.
Consumers: Obtains energy by digesting other organisms.
Respond to the Environment:
Tropism: Stimuli to changes in the environment. Ex.: Migration of birds when the weather gets cold.
Biotic vs. Abiotic:
Biotic: Anything that is alive or anything that has been alive.
Abiotic: Anything that has never been alive.
Levels of Organization:
Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti: Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Observation vs. Inference:
Observation: Knowledge observed by the senses.
Inference: Knowledge based on past experience.
Controlled Experimentation:
Have a testable hypothesis.
Identify the different variables
Dependent Variable.
Independent Variable
Standardized Variables
Control Variables
Do the experiment.
See if hypothesis was true or not.
Types of Data:
Quantitative Data: Data including numbers or statistics.
Qualitative Data: Data from observations.
Mixed Method: Including both quantitative and qualitative data.
Characteristics of a good Graph:
Title and labeled axis.
The study of classification.
Founder was Linnaeus.
There used to by only 7 in Linnaeus’s time, but now there are 8 including domains.
Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms/ 3 Domains:
Bacteria: Unicellular, prokaryotic, single celled, has peptidoglycan, heterotrophic and autotrophic.
Archaea: Unicellular, prokaryotic, single celled, lacks peptidoglycan, heterotrophic and phototrophic and chemotrophic.
Protista: Unicellular and colonial and multicellular, eukaryotic, membrane bound organelles, phototrophic and heterotrophic.
Fungi: Multicellular, eukaryotic, cell wall of chitin, chloroplast, heterotrophs.
Plantae: Multicellular, eukaryotic, cell wall of cellulose, chloroplast, phototrophic.
Animalia: Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic.
Bacteria: Unicellular, prokaryotic.
Archaea: Unicellular, prokaryotic.
Eukarya: Unicellular and colonial and multicellular, eukaryotic.
Geologic Time Scale:
Precambrian (4.6 bya-570mya): Invertebrates/primitive marine life.
Paleozoic (570mya-225mya): First fish, land animals, amphibians, and reptiles.
Mesozoic (225mya-65mya): Dinosaurs, mammals, and birds.
Cenozoic (65mya-present): Humans.
Cambrian Explosion: Life on land due to oxygen.
Permian Extinction: Death of organisms due to formation of Pangaea.
TK Asteroid: Complete extinction of dinosaurs due to asteroid hitting Earth.
Periods to know:
Tertiary: Age of mammals.
Quaternary: Age of humans.
Formation of Life Hypothesis:
Ocean Surface:
Panspermia: Hypothesis that life originated from outer space.