Starting point: Middle Ages
Little economic development, growth, trade,
Church, nobility, serfs
Lacked large, permanent empire
Europe fractures… Weak states
What unites them?
Churches, bureaucracy, etc
Crusades—but besides, Europe more or less “isolated”
No real intellectualism outside Church- knowledge is inside church
In lords/nobility, church and some kings
No real Middle Class
Unit 1—Change Commercial Revolution/ Capitalism Renaissance Reformation Discovery/Colonization/Imperialism Enlightenment Politics/state building Absolute Power (and not) Empire, Civil Wars and Revolution Technology: Printing, etc Warfare changes End of Christendom
If you can read and explain all of last paragraph on 234-5, shows you are in good shape!!! Need to read and figure it out… Write and outline!
French Revolution is an important topic!
French Revolution Monarchy v. Parliament/People Where does the power lie Why? Debt from U.S. Revolution American example of dismissing tyranny Leads to discontent
Poor Louis 16th Scapegoat and incompetent Taxes Nobles said he could not Didn’t ever stop absolute monarchs Tell him call estates general—last called in 1614 Gives in
Clergy; Nobility; commoners Token concession Double representatives But each estate gets 1 basic vote-- even though the commoners make up 97% of population
May 1789, Versailles Estates General Called 3rd estate Each representative gets a vote Even up numbers King locks meeting hall 3rd Estate and sympathizers congregate Pledge to end absolute monarch with constitution
Rev. shifts—from nobles to masses/bourgeoisie Parisians “storm Bastille” Always threat in revolutions Getting out of hand Let in peacefully Goes to hell… They kill him What would Louis do? Nothing—violence spreads How to calm things down?
Start Anew Scrap Ancien Regime, 1789 Monarchy and feudal structure gone A Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Liberties by restraining power
End of Monarchy? Mob sacks Versailles, seizes royal family House arrest in Paris King forced to swear loyalty to new constitution Louis’ great escape, June 1791 Fails: King/wife guillotined; son goes missing
Problems Start: What next? Wars of Coalition (1794-1815) France v. Louis’ royal supporters and European allies Decision making—left to right—National Convention Clear disagreements on future—“more” revolution
New People’s Army Many nobles flee Men of talent replace Repel invasions Army of countrymen Not knights, mercenaries, etc
Reign of Terror