The area of children development is divided into six aspect. Children and young people follow a pattern of development. To be able to know if children are learning and development, it is important to know what is expected for them to be able to do at different age and stages. It will help you know how to support them and you will be able to identify if they need extra support. The areas of development are:
Physical development: this is the physical skills of a child, the way in which the body moves and its ability to do things using parts of the body. The physical development of children is divided into 3.
Gross motor skills: the ability to control their head, arms and legs.
Locomotive motor skills: ability to walk, jump, run, move around and balance.
Fine motor skill: ability to be able to make their hands and eyes work together.
To know that a child is developing as they should they need to be able to master in different types of body movement.
Cognitive: cognitive or intellectual development is the development of the brain and mind. The ability to be able think, reason, understand and know things. As children grown their brain will be developing and they begin to understand and do things according to their age.
Language development: this is how children learns to talk and communicate. It is the development of communication skills. It be measured in three parts
Receptive speech- what a child understands.
Expressive speech- the words the child says.
Articulation- the actual pronunciation of the words.
As a child grows you will see that their communication skills will change from crying to babbling to speaking words to express themselves.
Social development: the growth of children development with other people besides their families. It’s a skill that can help children to play and be with other people easily. Children will first be scared or angry when left with unfamiliar people but as they grow their social development skills will increase, they will be able to play and socialise with others. Emotional development: How children feel about themselves and others. The self-realisation of their selves. How their self-esteem, confidence and awareness develops. How they learn to control and express their feelings.
And behavioural development: this is how children behave and learn to control their behaviour as they grow. This table is a guideline of the expected pattern of stages of development.
3-5 years 5-7 years Physical development
Head control. Sucking breast, finger & toys.
Reach dangling objects
Grasps and shake toys
Sitting up with support.
Crawling or rolling.
Sits up without support.
Try to grasp object out of reach.
Pick finger foods.
Stands up by holding a furniture.
Turns to look when they hear their name.
Stands without support.
Carry toys from one place to another.
Climb onto a sit.
Squat to pick things from the floor.
Crawl up and down stair.
Hold a pencil with thumb and two fingers.
Build few bricks.
Kick a ball gently.
Kneels to play.
Jumps with two legs.
Build larger bricks tower.
Push a tricycle with legs.
May be able to pedal a tricycle.
Use pencil to do circular scribbles.
Cut shapes out of paper.
Pour themselves a drink.
Use the toilet with support.
Walk up and down the stairs.
Walk on tip toes or a narrow line.
More skilful hand control, can draw a figure that resembles a person, thread beads, paint and use scissors.
Can pedal a tricycle.
Catch a ball thrown gently and kick a ball.
More control over eating equipment.
Use toilet independently.
Kick a ball with aim.
Bend waist to tough feet without bending kneels.
Ride bicycles and scooters.
Can thread needle.
Can do buttons and shoe laces.
More competent in writing and drawing skills.
Jump from height.
Catch and throw with one hand.