Essay Unit 12 Cornell Notes Chapters 29 and 30 MARGARET TEBBE

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Unit 12: Civil Rights and Vietnam
Chapter 29.1: Taking on Segregation
Board of

● In this case, the father of eight­year­old Linda
Brown had charged the board of education of
Topeka, Kansas, with violating Linda’s rights by denying her admission to an all­white elementary school four blocks from her house. The nearest all­black elementary school was 21 blocks away.
● In a landmark verdict the Supreme Court struck down school segregation as a slam on the 14th amendment's equal protection.

Rosa Parks

Was a seamstress and a NAACP officer, took a seat in the front row of “colored” section of a Montgomery bus.
As the bus filled up, the driver ordered Parks and three other African­American passengers to empty the row they were occupying so that a white man could sit down without having to sit next to any African Americans. She refused to move and was arrested, setting of a large bus
13 month boycott [FYI: it was only supposed to last a day]. Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr.

They elected the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist
Church, 26­year­old Martin Luther King, Jr., to lead the group. An ordained minister since 1948, King had just earned a Ph. D. degree in theology from Boston

Student Nonviolent

[SNCC]; An organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit­ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rights movement.


Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s.

What were Jim Crow It was aimed at separating the race forbade marriage

laws and how were they applied?

between black and whites and ect. many other restrictions on social and religious contact between the races What incident sparked the
Montgomery Bus

Sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks

What were the roots of Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr.’s beliefs in nonviolent resistance?

He based his ideas on the teachings of several people.
From the teachings of Jesus, he learned to love one’s enemies. From writer Henry David Thoreau he took the concept of civil disobedience the refusal to obey an unjust law. From labor organizer A. Philip Randolph he learned to organize massive demonstrations. From Mohandas
Gandhi, the leader who helped India throw off British rule, he learned to resist oppression without violence.

SUMMARY: In this chapter we were introduced to many icons associated with the Civil Rights Movement such as Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King among many others. Civil Disobedience that came from the bus boycott and sit in’s created enough momentum [i.e. push] to impose change that the African
Americans were looking for.
Chapter 29.2: The Triumph of a Crusade


Freedom rider

Hoped to provoke a violent reaction that would convince the Kennedy Administration to enforce the law.

Civil Rights Act of

A law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces. Fannie Lou Hamer

The daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers, would be their voice at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. In a televised speech that shocked the convention and viewers nationwide, Hamer described how she was jailed for registering to vote in 1962, and how police forced other prisoners to beat her.


Voting Rights Act of 1965 Civil rights activists broke

through racial barriers. Their activism prompted landmark legislation. What federal court case did James
Meredith win in

In September 1962, Air Force veteran James Meredith won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the all­white University of Mississippi, nicknamed Ole Miss.
But when Meredith arrived on campus, he faced Governor
Ross Barnett, who refused to let him register as a