E1 Summarise the factors which may influence the health and development of babies in the first year of their lives.
There are lots of things that affect the development of babies both when they are in the womb and once they have been born. Subjecting babies to passive smoking can also cause problems for their health. These problems include damage to hearing, cancer a long term cause and asthma. Dr Welch, who's the chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Providence Hospital in Southfield, Michigan states that He's seen the complications far too many times “babies born prematurely, babies born too small, babies who die before they can be born at all. A shortage of oxygen can have devastating effects on the baby's growth and development. Taking drugs or medicines such as cocaine when pregnant can give your baby health problems like long term behavioural problems and brain damage. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) advise pregnant women to “abstain from alcohol completely during the first three months of pregnancy because of the risks of miscarriage. And for the rest of pregnancy to drink no more than one or two units of alcohol once or twice a week”. (Drug rehab.co.uk 2013) Alcohol passes from the blood through the placenta and to the baby. A baby's liver is one of the last organs to develop fully and doesn't mature until the latter stages of pregnancy. So the baby cannot process alcohol as well as an adult could and too much exposure to alcohol can seriously affect their development. More recent research found that drinking in early pregnancy also increases the risk of premature birth and low birth weight and can leave the child with learning difficulties and behavioural problems Drinking while pregnant can affect the possibility that a baby will get ‘Foetal Alcohol Syndrome’ which consists of problems such as intellectual disabilities, liver damage, heart defects, restricted growth and facial abnormalities.
To ensure the best outcome for a child, breastfeeding is the healthiest way to feed a child. A mother’s milk has many benefits. It contains anti-bodies that start to build the babies immune system and the milk changes during the feed to fit the baby’s needs. The Health Who Organisation states that. “Breastfeeding is the best source of nourishment for infants and young children and one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival”. Breastfeeding helps protect babies from infections and diseases and babies are less likely of becoming obese or developing diabetes in later life. Breast feeding also helps build a strong physical and emotional bond between both mother and baby. A poor diet will impact on a child’s development, many children in today’s current climate are malnourished, the welsh government have introduced the offer of healthy start vouchers to families who qualify, this enables parents to provide fresh fruit, vegetables and milk sometimes buying these things aren’t quite possible as they are expensive and families and on budgets. Research consistently demonstrates that low income households find it difficult to adopt healthy eating guidelines. Evidence shows that eating healthy is more expensive. Poor access to shops and inadequate storage and cooking facilities are also a factor for those on a low income – not lack of nutrition knowledge. E2 Describe how indoor and outdoor environments for babies can be made safe, reassuring and stimulating.
C Discuss the importance of an environment that is safe reassuring and stimulating.
When practitioners are planning activities that promote babies learning and development they need to consider the setting’s safety. A safe environment for children under 12 months is essential as they cannot defend themselves or look after themselves, they are dependent on others looking after them and keeping them safe. There are many factors to making a safe environment, some of which are, risk assessment such