Intellectual development and learning:
At the age of three, children can match two-three primary colours. They begin to understand the time concept; they remember events that have happened in the past. They are always asking “why?” due to being fascinated by the cause and effects. They remember and repeat songs and nursery rhymes. “Cognitive or intellectual development is development of the mind- the part of the brain that is used for recognising, knowing and understanding” (Meggitt, 2012, page 3). Within my practice I have observed children counting up to 10 in the correct order. They control their attention, this means they have the ability to choose to stop the activity they are doing and return to it.
4 years old: They can count up to 20 in the correct order. They talk about things from the past and also about the future; this is due to them having increased memory skills. They give reasons and can solve problems. They include more detail in their drawings and confuse fact with fiction.
5 years old: They produce drawings in good detail, such as when drawing a house they include windows. They ask about more complex words and what their meaning is and can also use them.
6 -7 years old: They draw people in more detail. They begin to form opinions. They distinguish the difference between reality and fantasy. By 7, they are able to conserve numbers- this means they understand the quantity of something is the same whether it’s spread apart or put close together, this is often seen in them observing how many sweets they are getting compared to a sibling. They can express themselves in speech and in writing.
Social and emotional:
3 years: They like to do things unaided and think about how someone else may feel about something. They show affection for their younger siblings. “Social development includes the growth of the child’s relationships with other people” (Meggitt, 2012, page 3). They enjoy helping adults; this is often in cleaning up. They are willing to share their toys and are beginning to take turns when they are playing. As they have become capable of pretending and imagining, they often develop fears, like being scared of the dark. They are also aware of being male or female and make friends and are interested in having friends.
4 years: They eat correctly with a spoon and fork, I have observed this within my practice and also undress and dress themselves, however have difficulty with tying their laces on their footwear. They often show sensitivity to others. “Emotional development is about feelings and how we deal with them” (Meggitt, 2012, page 4).
5 years: They can dress and undress alone. They also have definite like and dislikes, this can include them liking to eat or have their food presented in a certain way which can be supported by having a key worker who will know that information. “Socialisation is the process of learning the skills and attitudes that enable the child to live easily with other members of the community” (Meggitt, 2012, page 3). They are also able to amuse themselves for longer periods of time; this includes reading or watching the television. They can also show sympathy and comfort friends who are hurt and they also enjoy caring for pets.
6-7 years: They can perform simple tasks such as hanging up clothes. They choose friends with similar personalities and interests. They have the ability to hold a long conversation with another child or adult, taking turns in speaking and listening. At this age, they begin to compare themselves with other people.
Intellectual development and learning:
0-3months: At birth, the babies are beginning to develop concepts like becoming aware of physical sensations, such as hunger and responding by crying. They explore using their senses and using their movement and activity. By one month, babies can recognise their primary carers and show this by responding to them