1.1 Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities
Because people with learning disabilities are more vulnerable than other people, they are affected by certain laws. There isn't one law or Act of Parliament which covers their situation, but they may be affected by laws concerning:
ownership of property,
control of personal finances,
Consent for sex and so on.
In the United Kingdom, specific legislation that affects people with learning disabilities includes:
Disability Discrimination Act,
Mental Health Act,
Community Care Act, and
National Health Services Act.
1.2 Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day-to-day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families
The laws and policies help to ensure that any person with a disability receives fair treatment, is not judged, or discriminated against, because of their disability. It affects their day to day living by:
Ensuring their voice is heard
Ensuring they receive appropriate care
Ensuring they are allowed to make their own choices
That they are aware of their rights and entitlements (benefits)
Ensuring they are not discriminated against
To protect them from harm, abuse, and injustice
2.1 Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’
The World Health Organisation defines learning disabilities as 'a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind'. Somebody with a learning disability is said also to have 'significant impairment of intellectual functioning' and 'significant impairment of adaptive/social functioning'
2.2 Give examples of causes of learning disabilities
Examples of causes of Learning Disabilities include:
• The mother becoming ill in pregnancy
• Problems during birth that stop enough oxygen getting to the brain
• The unborn baby developing certain genes
• The parents passing certain genes to the unborn baby that make having a learning disability more likely. (known as inherited learning disability)
• Illness such as meningitis, or injury in early childhood Sometimes there is no known cause of a learning disability
2.3 Describe the medical and social models of disability
Social and medical model of responsibility are as follows i.e. person-centred approach; medical; inclusivity; community integration and social.
2.4 State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is ‘not known’
Approximately 5% of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability this is not a single disorder, but includes disabilities in any of seven areas, these relate to reading, language, and mathematics.
2.5 Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability
Families can feel very alone and unsure about how to support their child, or what will happen in the future. Seeing challenging behaviour appear in a young child can be upsetting and confusing. There is a lot to learn and getting professional help and specialist services can be difficult.
Families are often socially isolated and can be left out of family events, activities and places in the local community because of their family member’s behaviour. Family carers say they have feelings like stress, frustration, anger, guilt, shame and loneliness, or feel that no-one understands what they are going through.
3.1 Explain the types of services that have been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time
•The Challenging Behaviour Foundation’s Family Support Service offers confidential emotional support by telephone or email. We also have a Family Carers' Email Network to put you in touch with other families.
•Carers’ charities, support groups and parent networks all offer support.