1 Know how to recognise signs of abuse.
1.1 and 1.2
a) Physical abuse is a deliberate act which could result in bodily injury, pain or impairment. Signs related to this could be bruising, fractures and burns which may be found in well protected or covered areas of the body. The possible signs of abuse could be cowering away or flinching when touched or approached.
b) Sexual abuse is when a person is forced or tricked into sexual activity or when sexual contact is non- consensual. Signs and symptoms may include bruises around breasts or genitals, unexplained bleeding or bloody underwear. The person may appear fearful or withdrawn from people.
c) Emotional/psychological abuse is when a person has power and control over another person through words and gestures which eventually undermines the person’s self-respect. This can be done by name calling, making threats or screaming at them. The signs or symptoms maybe anxiety, being fearful and low self-confidence. The person may result to behaviours such as rocking, hair twisting and become withdrawn.
d) Financial abuse is stealing money or possessions. This could also be by tricking people into giving away money or possessions. The signs and symptoms may show that signatures on cheques are different from those of the service user, there are unexplained disappearances of money or possessions. The person may feel fearful, anxious or embarrassed.
e) Institutional abuse is when the lifestyle of a service user is changed to fit in with the routines of a home. This may include neglect, verbal abuse, psychological abuse. The service user may not be able to go out and their privacy not being respected for example their mail being opened without their consent. Signs and symptoms may include lack of their own clothing, lack of heating. Staff not respecting a service users privacy for example entering their room without knocking.
f) Self-neglect is when a service user neglects their own health or well-being. This may be due to illness or depression. Signs and symptoms may include poor nutrition, poor personal hygiene, dirty living conditions or not taking medication.
g) Neglect by others is when a carer does not carry out duty of care to the service user. This could be a deliberate act or due to the carer being ill or stressed. The signs and symptoms could include poor personal hygiene of the service user, lack of food, fluid or heating. The service user could become withdrawn or become ill.
1.3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse:
When the carer is living with the service user and feels that they cannot cope with the situation. This could result in the carer becoming frustrated, lose control and start shouting at the service user or lashing out at them in a frustrated way.
When staff do not have the correct level of training or support when at work. This could result in wrongful handling of the service user or an accident occurring because of inadequate training.
When the service user has limited mobility or has mental disabilities which may increase the risk of abuse as the carer may not have the correct training to deal with these service users. The carer may become impatient with the time the service user is taking in moving or agitated with the repetitive questions the service user keeps asking
Domestic violence can result between the service user and their relative or carer. This could result with physical or mental abuse as the relative would not have the training or knowledge required. They could also feel angry and resentful that their life is being taken over by caring for their relative.
2 Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse.
2.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused.
Actions to take: If a carer suspects abuse they should ask the service user what has happened and telling…