1. List the 4 primary tissue types and give the general characteristics and functions of each one.
• Epithelial tissue- Makes up the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body. Functions- protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion.
• Connective tissue- found everywhere, most abundant tissue type. Function- connects the body parts.
• Muscle tissue- attached to bone, striated. Functions- voluntary, helps with movement.
• Nervous tissue- composed of neurons. Function- control the body processes
2. How are epithelial tissues classified?
• Simple or stratified
3. How does the type of epithelial tissue relate to its function? Give at least 1 example of where you would find each type of epithelial tissue.
• The type of epithelial tissue relates to it’s function because if it’s too thin then it won’t do the job it’s needed to do.
• Simple squamous epithelium- air sacs of lungs
• Simple cuboidal epithelium- kidney tubules
• Simple columnar epithelium- digestive tract
• Pseudostrafied columnar epithelium- respiratory tract
• Stratified squamous- esophagus
• Stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar- ducts of large glands
• Transitional epithelium- urinary bladder
• Glandular epithelium- endocrine glands
4. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands. Give an example of each.
• Endocrine- ductless, diffuse into blood-thyroid
• Exocrine- retain their ducts, empty through ducts to the epithelial surface- sweat glands
5. What is the difference between apocrine, merocrine and holocrine glands? Which is the most common?
• Merocrine secretion - cells secrete their product through exocytosis and remain intact after secretion (digestive juices)- most common
• Apocrine secretion - cells secrete their product by destroying their apex membrane so that the product flows out of the cell into the excretion duct; after secretion the cell regenerates its apex membrane (mammary gland)
• Holocrine secretion - the entire cell is destroyed in order to release the product (sebaceous glands)
6. Describe connective tissue’s intercellular material.
• Fibroblasts, adipose cells, mast cells, macrophages, leukocytes and plasma cells are present in loose connective tissue. The intercellular substance (matrix) consists of fibers (collagenous, elastic, reticular), amorphous ground substance (glycoproteins, proteins, proteoglycans) and tissue fluid.
7. What are the 8 main types of connective tissue? Briefly describe each.
• Areolar Connective Tissue – cushion around organs, loose arrangement of cells and ﬁbers
• Adipose Tissue – storehouse for nutrients, packed with cells and blood vessels
• Reticular Connective Tissue – internal supporting framework of some organs, delicate network of ﬁbers and cells
• Dense Regular Connective Tissue – tendons and ligaments, regularly arranged bundles packed with ﬁbers running same way for strength in one direction.
• Dense Irregular Connective Tissue – skin, organ capsules, irregularly arranged bundles packed with ﬁbers for strength in all directions.
• Cartilage- functions- provides strength with ﬂexibility while resisting wear and cushions and shock absorbs where bones
• Bone- functions-provides framework and strength for body, allows movement, stores calcium, contains blood-forming cells
• Blood- functions- transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients around the body also for immune response.
8. Order the types of connective tissue from most rigid to softest. Be sure that you understand why.
Bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue and blood.
9. Describe the 3 types of cartilage? Which is the most abundant?
• Hyaline- most abundant- made of collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a glassy blue-white appearance.
• Elastic cartilage-
10. Differentiate between the 3 types of muscle tissue.
• Skeletal- voluntary, called flesh, pull bones or skin to cause body movements and