Unit 4 study guide Essay

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Unit 4 Study Guide
Emily Tufariello

Age of Enlightenment:
Age of Timing, Social Science, and Optimism using reason
John Locke- All people are selfish
People are born good and given natural rights
- Kings power should be limited with a constitutional monarchy
Baron de Montesquieu- Wanted a constitutional monarchy
Government should be in 3 sections (checks and balances)
Thomas Hobbes- Religion should be separate from State Government
People are fearful and greedy
Believed in absolute power in the state
Voltaire- All things can be explained logically
Believes in freedom and respect
Religion was too powerful and people suffered due to their beliefs
Adam Smith- Philosopher who focused on economics
“Wealth of Nations” focuses on economy’s role in society
Believes in Capitalism
Mary Wollstonecraft- Fought for equal rights for all human beings
Education should be available for men and women
Education should be based on reason
Diderot- Published the first encyclopedia a book of other’s thoughts
Jean-Jacques Rousseau- Believed in natural rights
Majority rule should become a law
Felt education was necessary for all children and they should be able to express themselves
Evolution of Democracy-
Greeks: Each man had 1 vote in assembly
Romans: Assemblies with individual votes and senate
British: (Feudalism) House of lords, house of commons, and monarchy
Magna Carta: King was forced to sign by the Great Charter –limited his power and had to consult nobles to tax citizens or go to war
Louis XIV-: King of France-post Magna Carta, controlled all aspects of government from military to treasury with a complete Monarchy
Americans: Senate and House of Representatives
Constitutional Monarchy-
King, Prime minister and Cabinet, Parliament: Upper house and Lower house, Constitution with many laws written by judges

North American Revolution:
Conservative Movement: Wanted to control/ preserve laws that already existed
Socially- More equality
Economically- More opportunity
Politically- Self- government
Post Movement: Women did not obtain equal rights, White elite men still in charge, Slavery remained, land was not redistributed
“The Declaration of Independence”
Impact on Other Movements- Most democratic country at the time
Spread beliefs: Declaration, Constitution, Separation of Church and state, Bill of rights
Rebellion against mother contry
James Madison- “father of constitution”, believed in right to property
Patrick Henry- gave “liberty or death” speech, believed freedom was utmost right

The French Revolution:
Financial Crisis:
1- Nobles not paying taxes
2- Deficit spending- Spending more than they have
3- Bad harvest- Not making profits
4- Entering wars (7 years war, American Revolution) Expensive
Three Estates:
1st King and Queen, 2nd Nobles and Clergy, 3rd Other 98% of commoners that pay 100% taxes and own 60% of land
Louis XVI and the Estates General: Believed that France could fix debt by taxing the 3rd estate more  The 3rd Estate wanted a limitied monarchy and called for the National Assembly
National Assembly: Created a new constitution to built solidarity and limit the government’s power took months of work
Storming the Bastille: The King had started to form his army to put down the organizations against him
- 800 people stormed the prison (Bastille) for weapons a Commander and 5 guards were killed and some prisoners were freed (showed they would do anything for freedom
“Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen”: Issued by the national assembly
- More radical and violent than the American Revolution (King and Queen were beheaded)
Reign of Terror: Robespierre and the committee of public safety executed all traitors- counter revolutionaries (priests and nobles)
Committee of Public Safety:
Maximilien Robespierre: Lead the reign of terror and beheaded thousands
Napoleon Bonaparte: Helped overthrow the the directory – oligarchy established in 1795 