1.1 Define the following types of abuse:
Physical abuse: is physical force or violence by another person that results in bodily injury, physical pain or impairment. It includes pushing, slapping, kicking and pinching.
Example: when someone deliberately hurts or injures another individual and results in physical pain or injury.
Another example: hiding medication in food or tying down to a chair or toilet.
Sexual abuse: refers to any action that pressures or forces someone to do something sexually they don’t want to do. It includes inappropriate touching, kissing, for example of the breasts and genitals; oral rape, including penetration with objects.
Example: rape or attempted rape, keeping someone from protecting themselves from sexually transmitted infections.
Emotional/psychological abuse: means any act leads to mental suffering by someone in a position of trust. It includes deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, harassment, verbal abuses and isolation.
Example: a person who controls other person through minimizing, denying, blaming or emotionally degrading in private but acting charming in public.
Financial abuse: is defined as theft or misuse of someone’s money, property or resources by someone in a position of trust. It can also be very subtle such as telling you what you can or can’t buy, or requiring you to share control in your bank accounts. It includes fraud and pressure.
Example: keeping you from seeing shared bank accounts or records, preventing you from going to work by taking your car or keys.
Institutional abuse: is the mistreatment, neglect of a person’s needs and choices due to poor professional practice and priority being given to rigid organisational procedures.
Example: when medication is not given in the right time or when someone’s information is shared without consulting them.
Self-neglect: is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, to take care and protect him/herself.
Example: failing to eat properly, failing to seek help when ill and failing to take prescribed medication.
Neglect by others: is the failure of someone who is responsible for a vulnerable person to give them the necessary degree of care. It includes ignoring physical care needs such as toileting, failure to provide the necessities of life such as warmth, food and shelter.
1.2 Identify the signs/symptoms associated with each type of abuse:
Types of abuse Signs Symptoms
Scratches, bruises, burns, fractures, rough handling, scalds and blisters.
Fear, anger, loss of self-esteem, pain.
Love bites, injury to the genitals or anus, inability to develop normal sexual relationships, sexual transmitted infections
Shame, guilt, loss of dignity, pain due to injuries and infection.
Self-harm, aggression, tearfulness.
Humiliation, loss of self-confidence, embarrassment, fear.
Unexplained loss of money; diminishing health status due to reduced quality of life and insufficient money for bills.
Anxiety about financial affairs; loss of independence and control.
Loss of clothing and personal possessions; withdrawal; aggression, loss of interest in the environment.
Loss of independence, anger, depression, hopelessness.
Neglect and self-neglect
Smelly, dirty, under/overweight, poor living condition, inadequate clothing.
Pain due to pressure ulcers, hunger, cold.
1.3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse: factors may include if the individual has mental disability: such as dementia or the person is isolated from social support networks such as friends and family. Social isolation means also restricted access to services such as health and social care, transport and the police.
Poor housing: overcrowding creates aggression which results