Unit Four Questions Essay

Submitted By tareans
Words: 2039
Pages: 9

Unit Four Essay # 1
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Describe and discuss ways in which family life and social patterns changed in the face of the new changes brought about industrialization and urbanization in society.

Late in the 18th century widespread changes in social habits and relationships became apparent. This caused wasn’t understood well, but seemed to be linked to the sciences competing with religion due to enlightenment. Thus, the industrial revolution accelerated. During the 18th century only the wealthy could give love to their infants or young children because the mortality rate for infants was extremely high, it discouraged people from committing emotionally to their children. Three out of five children would die before the age of ten years old; another would die before reaching the age of twenty. This only made sense to emotionally detach maternal love and paternal pride to those only old enough to actually live. Children under the age of seven years old were seen as a pure liability, they required time consuming care and food and contributed nothing. Children were expected to see that their parents did not starve in their old age. Around the year 1800, parental love improved and reformers like Jean- Jacque Rousseau, insisted that children should receive an education to correct problematic ways.

During the mid-1700s, most people believed that moving up in society was do-able if one worked hard. Although most people continued to work the land some engaged in urban jobs, because there was no government provisions to aid the needy unemployment and literal starvation was often and very real. Pre-Industrial times saw many women spinning thread and men were weaving. The Industrial Revolution changed gender roles and the man became the family’s primary wage earner and the women became exploited. Women found limited opportunity bound to housework child care and serving as household servants since almost every European household had one. By the early 19th century, factory work was common in England and many women took jobs tending machines. Early factories were called “satanic mills” and offered only a hard life of misery. Initially entire families staffed factories but in time women and children replaced male adults in unskilled jobs since the textile owners knew women would work for lower wages.

In the 18th century major cities began to grow. The bulk of new industry was concentrated in small towns where land was cheaper and closer to raw materials. Manchester the English textiles center had a population of 7000 in 1740 and 50 years later 25000. The census of 1851, showed for the first time in English history, more people lived in urban settings than the rural countryside.

Conditions were horrific and improvements came slow. One of the earliest reforms was the factory act of 1833; this limited the workday for children between the ages of 9-13, to an eight hour day; adolescents (ages 14-18), to 12 hour days. Also, children under the age of nine years old were in elementary school that the employer was required to establish.

Unit Four Essay # 2

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Explain changes in health and living standards brought about by industrialization and urbanization.

Prior to the Industrial Revolution people lived off grains, cheese, sporadic meats, and seasonal fruits, however famine very common. By the end of the 18th century with improved farming techniques better seeds, crop rotation and growing serfdom in Eastern Europe that produced excessive grain, famine had almost disappeared. The most significant addition to the European diet was the potato.

Although, the lives of ordinary people were improving, medical and surgical conditions were showing little to no change. Being admitted into a hospital was almost a death warrant and the poor refused to go and prefer to die at…