Physiology is a branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts this would include all physical processes.
What is Parkinson’s disease?
The Parkinson’s disease is a condition in which part of the brain becomes more and more damaged. This is due to the amount of dopamine being produced which is not as much as it should be which damaged the nerve cells and the message being sent to the brain takes longer, so the individual’s movement is slowed down.
Loss of nerve cells - Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in the amount of a chemical called dopamine in the brain.
Genetics - mutations have been identified as increasing a person's risk of developing Parkinson's disease, although exactly how these make some people more susceptible to the condition is unclear.
Environment – exposure to toxic chemicals like pesticide, air pollution and herbicides.
Physiological effects as a result of treatment:
Some treatment used for Parkinson’s disease is physiotherapy, medication like drugs, and in some cases surgery. Some medication like dopamine agonists can cause nausea, vomiting, headaches, constipation, and dizziness, fainting and feeling drowsy. [ http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/content/dopamine-agonists ]
Symptoms felt by individual:
Tremor – uncontrollable shaking, which takes place in mostly hands, fingers, forearms, feet, arm or chin.
Slow movement – when the movement of an individual is slowed down, they find everyday tasks hard and time consumed, like walking, buttoning shirt, and writing.
Stiffened muscles – Pain in muscles when the individual tries to move, mostly in arms, and legs.
Observed signs: problems sleeping (insomnia) - which can result in excessive sleepiness during the day mild cognitive impairment – slight memory problems and problems with activities that require planning and organisation dementia – more severe memory problems, personality changes, visual hallucinations and delusions [http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/parkinsons-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx ]
Changes to body function:
Parkinson’s disease causes changes to the body functions as the individual would not be able to walk properly due to tremor and stiff muscles.
What is kidney disease?
Kidney disease is a disease when an individual’s kidneys do not work effectively.
Diabetes - does not produce enough insulin or effective insulin. If diabetes is poorly controlled, too much glucose can build up in your blood. The glucose can damage the tiny filters in the kidneys, which affects the ability of your kidneys to filter