Defining the different terms and concepts.
❖ Operant conditioning.
Operant Conditioning is when you are giving someone or something a goal or treat when they learn a new behavior. Like my three year old son . When I was trying to potty train him when he was younger .
I would give him a piece of candy everytime he would go on his own . It helped so much because now he goes where he does not even get candy but knows he has to go to the restroom because this behavior is planted in his mind. Operant Conditioning is associating the response with a stimulus.
The rat in this picture has to pull down the lever to receive his food . If he does not pull down the lever the rat will starve and go hungary. This is known as a Skinner box. This box has a chamber that includes at least one lever or bar the the animal can push on and when it is pushed food,water or some type of reinforcement might be dispensed. Some boxes also had lights, sounds,images as well as some had electric on the floor.
❖ Positive punishment
Positive punishment, I think this has been used on us all . Getting a ticket for being late to work and trying make it on time. Wearing your favorite dress to work but its not appropriate and you are scolded by a manger for being out of dress code or even my favorite ( not so much ) growing up . Not doing something that your parents agree with and getting spanked to learn not to do it again or this would be the same punishment for the choices you make. Some researchers have suggested that mild, occasional spanking is not harmful, especially when used in a conjuction with other forms of discipline. Psychologist
Elizabeth Gershoff (2012) had said spanking will increase the behavior, delinquency and aggressiveness in a poor parent child relationship.
❖ Negative punishment
Negative punishment is a different type of punishment. Where two children are fighting over a toy and the mother takes it away to put it up or a teen was told not to go out to the party but sneaks out and does it anyways and comes home after to getting grounded from the parents. Negative punishment involves taking something good or desirable away to reduce the occurrence of a particular behavior.
Another example , When I was in high school I would skip all the time with my friends. I liked school and always had fun but I never went. Yes I use to be spanked for this but continue to skip until a police office came to my house and told me I was going to have to go to jail for not going to school . I starting going after that but had to go to a behavior high school in the daytime and night . It made me notice what I have done wrong and work harder to get my diploma.
❖ Positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is when we get a award for our behavior . When a student gets all A’s on their report card and the parent tells them good job or even when a dog is play catch with his owner and brings back the ball , The owner says great job. Positive reinforcement is most effective when it happens right after the behavior.
❖ Negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is a term described by B.F. Skinner in his theory of operant conditioning (