On July 31, 2006 the United Nations Security Council ratified resolution 1696 in response to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports of the potential for undeclared nuclear material or activities in Iran. The June 2006 IAEA Director General report indicated “the Agency is unable to make progress in its efforts to provide assurance about the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in Iran. After more than three years of Agency efforts to seek clarity about all aspects of Iran’s nuclear program, the existing gaps in knowledge continue to be a matter of concern (International Atomic Energy Agency 2006, 7).” Iranian efforts to conceal aspects of its nuclear program and failure to comply with IAEA safeguards created distrust amongst the international system and prompted the ratification of resolution 1696. Resolution 1696 “demanded that Iran suspend all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and development, and gave it one month to do so or face the possibility of economic and diplomatic sanctions to give effect to its decision (U.N. Security Council 2006, 1).” Iran is one of the 189 signatories of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and therefore strictly limited to civilian applications of nuclear energy. The NPT is intended to prevent additional states from developing nuclear weapons, disarm current nuclear powers and facilitate the use of peaceful nuclear technology. All NPT signatories are required to follow nuclear safeguards to create international transparency to ensure no treaty signatory is building nuclear military capabilities. These safeguards are in place “to [prevent] diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices (International Atomic Energy Agency 1945 Article 3).” The November 2003 IAEA Director General report documented Iran’s failure to comply with mandatory nuclear safeguards required by the NPT. The IAEA report states, “it is clear that Iran has failed in a number of instances over an extended period of time to meet its obligations… with respect to the reporting of nuclear material and its processing and use, as well as the declaration of facilities where such material has been processed and stored (International Atomic Energy Agency 2003, 9).” Specifically, Iran failed to report; amounts of imported nuclear material, production of enriched and depleted uranium dating back to 1999, loss of nuclear material, production and transfer of nuclear waste, plutonium extraction and design information on seven different nuclear program facilities (International Atomic Energy Agency 2003, 9). The Iranian government ignored the U.N. demand to cease nuclear research and enrichment. Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad responded to resolution 1696, stating “Those who think they can use the language of threats and force against Iran are mistaken. If they don't realize that now, one day they will learn it the hard way (BBC News 2006)." Iranian non-compliance with resolution 1696 led to resolution 1737, ratified on December 23, 2006, which applied economic sanctions, cut communication and froze all foreign Iranian funds, including corporate and personal assets. These sanctions were compounded by resolutions 1747 ratified in 2007 and 1929 ratified in 2010. Israeli security sources estimate the total cost of sanctions at $130 billion since 2012 alone (The Times of India 20013). These sanctions have been credited with creating Iranian willingness to negotiate which resulted in the November 24, 2013 Geneva interim agreement. The agreement puts a short-term hold on uranium enrichment above 3.5% and releases nuclear reactor design details for the Arak nuclear power plant in exchange for reduced economic sanctions. The interim agreement affirms Iran’s right to nuclear energy as stated in the NPT but doesn’t clarify if that includes the right to enrich uranium (Gearan 2013).…
Question Topic: UN Security Council
1. The UN Security Council has succeeded in establishing itself as the prime guardian of international peace after the Cold War, however, its effectiveness has been mixed. This “prime” position must be considered in light of the fact that there is no other international body that has any perceived legitimacy to negotiate on issues of war and peace. The Security Council is unique in that, from a legal perspective, member states have given up elements of their…
United Nations/ International Courts
October 16, 2013
Law 12 (2-4)
Since its inception, the United Nations, an organization that was created to promote peace, security, and universal cooperation, has played a large role in international affairs that have resulted in both success and failure.
One of the United Nation’s affairs involved the country of Congo dubbed the “Congo Crisis.” During 1960-1966, the Congo Crisis was a potential civil war that had erupted when Congo began to strive…
UNEF II (1974-1979)
This report will argue that although the United Nations Emergency Force II is generally viewed as a success and created an optimistic view as to the future of United Nations peacekeeping, it also exposes concerns over the legitimacy of what the organization truly stands for.
Figure 1: Map of the Sinai Peninsula
The origins of what we call the Yom Kippur war lay in the control of the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights (Territory…
Modern Middle East
December 14, 2011
Modern Middle East Final: Short Answers
United Nations Resolution 242
The United Nations Resolution 242 was a Security Council resolution created on November 22, 1967. It was derived from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War also known as the Six-Day War. This resolution called for five major actions:
1 Israel’s withdrawal from territories occupied during the recent conflict
2 An end to belligerency and respect for the acknowledgment of…
It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.
The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN 2014 in
committee sessions. Please note this guide only provides the basis for your investigation. It is your
responsibility to find as much information necessary on the topics and how they relate to the country you
represent. Such information should help you write…
cirumstances are influencded by the major actors in the world. Untill 1990s, commentators on world affairs called their discipline 'International relations'. Since the advent of globalisation the term 'international relations - relations between nations - is no longer broad enough to describe the world.
The term 'new world orde'r originated in the early 1900s in the wake of the optimism at the end of the cold war.
The need for world order
Interdependence and global threats
sustainable development, social justice, peace, and security.
These goals will only be achieved if women are able to participate as equal partners, decision makers, and beneficiaries of the sustainable development of their societies. This is explicitly recognised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The UDHR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, of which Canada is a member, in…
US vs. Them: America and the World
The United Nations: Futile at Best
Through the last 60 years, the United Nations, as the premier international organization, has aimed to promote peace and facilitate a dialog between member nations in an attempt to prevent a third World War, and ultimately, achieve world peace. However, since its founding, the United Nations has proven to be, at best, a symbolic, superfluous collective that holds no applicable power (neither militaristically…
The United Nations has a long and storied tradition with the United States. The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the First World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security. The International Labor Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its…