Gold Rush - An abundance of gold was found in Cali in 1863 which began a rush to see who could find gold and make a fortune of it.
Specialization - When somebody decides to specialize in a trade. For example, a blacksmith specializes in making equipment for the army.
Empresarios - An empresario was a person who had been granted the right to settle on Mexican land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers. The word is Spanish for entrepreneur.
Forty-Niners - People who rushed to California in 1849 in order to profit from the gold discovered.
Capitalism - An economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production. In other words, citizens build factories and businesses to earn profits. Santa Anna - Mexican president who rejected Austin. He began his career fighting for Spain, and later he switched to fighting for Mexico. He fought many battles, but died in poverty and almost forgotten.
John C. Fremont - An anti-slave Republican who lead a group of Americans settlers to California. He is credited for helping to create the Republic of California.
Entrepreneurs - Investors who start businesses in order to profit, although there is risk involved, entrepreneurs have made businesses that made huge amounts of profit and helped move the economy forward.
Texas Revolution - Rebellions that broke out in Texas after Mexico revoked local powers in Texas and other Mexican states.
Spot Resolution - A challenge to Polk’s claim that the Mexicans shed American blood on American soil. Lincoln asked for Polk to point out the exact spot at which American blood was shed to prove that the area was not technically American land.
Telegraph - A device used to carry messages across copper wire. Invented by Samuel Morse Alamo - An abandoned fort. The Texians drove the Mexicans from this fort. Despite these efforts, Santa Anne destroyed the Texians. And so the war cry “Remember the Alamo” was born. Stephen Kearny - A colonel Polk ordered to march from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe. He earned the nickname “The Long Marcher”
John Deere - A blacksmith who invented the first steel plow. It was easy to pull than previous equipment and increased production.
Lone Star Republic - Also known as the Republic of Texas. After the Texians were freed from Mexican rule, they became the Lone Star Republic and set up an army and a navy.
Republic of California - What California was known after it claimed freedom from Mexico. At this time it was not a part of the US.
Cyrus McCormick - The inventor of the mechanical reaper, this instrument let the farmer do the work of five hired hands.
Sam Houston - Man who offered Texas the opportunity to annex with the US. He was governor of Tennessee and trained for three years with Native Americans.
Winfield Scott - One of Polk’s generals nicknamed “Old Rough and Ready”
Manifest Destiny - A notion that it was America's destiny to spread west towards the ocean and into Mexican territory.
Annex - To incorporate. Example, Sam Houston invited Texas to annex with America.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Treaty between Mexico and US that gave the US texas, new mexico, and california
Black Hawk War - A war fought between a Native American leader named Black Hawk