Urbanization is the rise of population in the urban areas. Recently, an increasing number of people have migrated from rural to urban areas, which has accelerated the process of urbanization. This upward trend is not restricted to developing countries but also developed countries. According to Tyler Miller and Spoolman (2008), the driving force of urbanization lies in social, economic or even religious reasons, which means people move to cities for a better quality of life. However, along with urbanization benefits, problems of urbanization appear. As a result, these problems will pose a threat to both residents’ living condition and natural environment. To solve these problems, the governments and urban planners believe that sustainable development is an efficient way to achieve. Sustainable development means that people should search to enhance their living condition without damaging the natural environment (Adams 1999). In this essay, it will give an overview of the urbanization problems in two aspects, which are insufficient urban space such as housing shortage and environment destruction as well as urban transportation problems such as traffic congestion and air pollution. After that, this essay will discuss the problems of urbanization can be partly addressed by the sustainable solutions due to some limitations. The first problem connected to urbanization is that there is not enough urban space for the growing population, particularly in developing countries. Firstly, some studies have pointed out that houses in cities are in great demand, which leads to housing shortage. This is because the population grows not only in the nature ways associated with the increasing birth rates and decreasing death rates, but also in the way that a large migration of people move from rural to urban areas for more desirable life (Tyler Miller & Spoolman 2008; Bilham-Boult et al. 1999). Additionally, as stated by Tyler Miller and Spoolman (2008), poverty is an existing life style for many urban inhabitants in most of the developing countries because a great proportion of them are unemployed. The authors go on to say that the only places they can afford to live are the slums and squatter settlements where there are few clean water supplies, low coverage of sewage systems and lack of legal electricity. For example, in Mexico City, more than 33 per cent of the poor dwellers have built inadequate, prohibited shanty towns from waste materials such as plastic sheets and scrap wood, which are without basic services and fringed around the city (Tyler Miller & Spoolman 2008; Bilham-Boult et al. 1999). Similar situation also has happened in developed cities, such as Hong Kong. Since about 1947, squatter settlements have appeared only in the mainland and the island at first, yet it has spread to the colony and the New Territories due to the continual arrival of refugees from China and Vietnam (Chaffey 1994). This then leads to serious overcrowding and lack of normal facilities which may cause negative consequences for environment. Secondly, lack of urban space has also caused damages to the environment. First of all, with the expansion of urban population, a large amount of trees and shrubs, which have positive effects on environment, such as giving off oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide and cooling the air, are cut down for more room to build houses and roads (Tyler Miller & Spoolman 2008). Moreover, houses are even built on the farmlands in Mexico City (Bilham-Boult et al. 1999). Once these places are damaged, it may be ruined forever or it may take years to recover. Second, many authors agree that the contamination in poor urban areas including both water and land pollution that results from inadequate water supplies, sanitation, drainage, and waste collection is considered to be the most direct environmental problem of cities in the developing world (Tyler Miller & Spoolman 2008; Bilham-Boult et al. 1999; Elliot 1999). As it can be seen…
1st Period/ Economics
April 17, 2013
Revised Sources List
* Academic Journal – Oxford Journal
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy
Summary: Conventional wisdom about the impact of environmental regulation on business that declares that well-designed regulation can actually enhance competiveness, improving the economy and helping to find eco-friendly…
The Unprepared Burst of Urbanization & its Underserved Costly Consequences
Have you seen the film in which Munir Ozkul, Adile Nasit, Zeki Alasya and Kemal Sunal play the villagers who immigrate to Istanbul in order to find the gold lying underneath the ground? Most probably all of you have seen it. The film was made approximately 20 years ago, as you remember, and it depicted the rail stations full of immigrants including the main characters. It was a long time ago. However, the phenomenon of uncontrolled…
Although Greenwood, is not nearly as big as
places like Atlanta, Georgia, we still may be
at a risk for the effects of urbanization on our
weather. Let’s look at three locations that are
at risk in Greenwood!
1) Greenwood Park Mall
1) Greenwood Park Mall
How have humans impacted this area?
Humans have totally transformed the area by
putting a huge mall (and expanding it also).
After the central mall was built, the area around
it was also…
Tawana Gant REVISED
Bullying: Why Cause Pain
The issue of bullying is something that should be taken seriously, but it is something we often turn away from. However think about if you were in their shoes, the issue wouldn’t be a joke, but serious. Bullying is indeed a part of modern society. Bullying can cause psychological effects on people such as…
1) Explain the effects of Urbanization
According to Cyril, Oldroyd and Renzaho, “despite the plethora of studies examining the effect of increased urbanization on health, no single study has systematically examined the measurement properties of scales used to measure urbanicity” (Cyril, Oldroyd & Renzaho, 2013). This leaves urbanization open for interpretation. The effects on public health are obvious. The socioeconomic statuses play a part in the urbanization. This would be overpopulation…
Immigration and Urbanization
The New Immigrants Outline
New Immigrants come America
-Old immigrants came to the U.S. for economic opportunity and religious freedom.
-Majority were Protestants from North and West Europe.
-They came as families, stayed on farms with friends and families who had arrived to the U.S. before them, and majority had money, skill, trade or were educated.
-1840s and 50s many Germans and Irish arrived after the Civil War. Americans disliked the Catholics but they benefit…
The benefits of urbanization outweigh the costs. Discuss.
“Urbanization is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities” (Learn on the Internet, 2008). Globally, urbanization is increasing. For example, in 1950, the percentage of urbanization was 30%, now, it is around 55%, and by 2030, it may rise to 60%. (WHO, 2010). In addition, this phenomenon usually happens in developing countries. At present, urbanization is mostly happening in countries such as China and India (Learn…
In the Youtube video “China on Path For Sustainable Growth”, Yale University Senior Fellow and former Chairman at Morgan Stanley Asia Stephen Roach spoke about the future of China, and where he see’s the Chinese economy going in the near future. He spoke on many different interesting topics, such as boosting China’s social safety net (social security, private pensions, and insurance). He also spoke about how China needs to start moving away from manufacturing (which does not create…
14 June, 2012
Final/Revised Researched Argument Essay
(thesis) The media is a culture force that can not be avoided and gives us information on a vast variety of topics. It influences what we think, the way we act and helps us choose our purchases. The media not only provides us with the information, but it decides which information is important. What we see on television and the internet or what we hear on the radio is all chosen by the media. Media…