Industrial Revolution- a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. This was significant because it drastically changed the methods of production.
Interchangeable Parts-are parts that are, for practical purposes, identical. This was significant because it made it possible to just buy one part instead of a whole new product when one part breaks.
Labor Unions-an organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests. This is significant because they protect the rights of the individual workers.
Nativists-the policy of perpetuating native cultures. This is significant because they fueled anti-immigration policies in the late 1800’s.
Cotton Gin- a machine for separating cotton from its seeds. This was significant because it increased slavery greatly in the south.
American System- an economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. This is significant because it built roads, canals, and helped facilitate trade.
John Marshall- the fourth Chief Justice of the United States (1801–1835) whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches.
McCulloch vs. Maryland- This landmark case declared that the United States government had implied powers as well as those specifically listed in the Constitution. This is significant because Maryland's action violated Congress's "implied powers" in the constitution to establish and operate a national bank.
Gibbons vs. Ogden-was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
Monroe Doctrine- an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers. This is significant because it showed America's desire to be viewed as an international power.
Missouri Compromise- In the years leading up to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, tensions began to rise between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions within the U.S. Congress and across the country. It banned slavery above the line.
Corrupt Bargain-The term Corrupt Bargain refers to three separate events that each involved a United States presidential election and a deal that was struck that many viewed to be corrupt. The significance is that it determined who became president.
Spoils System- The spoils system was a method of appointing officials to the government of the United States of America based on political connections rather than on impersonal measures of merit. The name was derived from the phrase "to the victor go the spoils".
Worchester vs. Georgia-a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
Trail of Tears-The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
Tariff of Abominations-The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was significant because it tried to protect the northern factories.
Protective Tariffs- a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition.
Nullification-the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress. It was significant because it showed how different the north and south really were.