Us Honors Notes Essay

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Identifying People and Ideas: 1. John Locke- an English philosopher and a major influence upon the Founding Fathers, he’s the founder of British empiricism with faith in the rising middle class, Locke followed the principles of the Enlightenment 2. Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom- statue stating in part that the human mind was created free and that government control over religious beliefs or worship is tyrannical 3. Articles of Confederation- document that created an association of states while guaranteeing each state its “Sovereignty, freedom, and independence” 4. Daniel Shays- a former Revolutionary War captain, along with other angry farmers, took up arms against the government due to “taxation without representation” 5. James Madison- of Virginia, served as a delegate to the Constitutional Congress 6. Virginia Plan- presented by Edmund Randolph and drafted by James Madison, this proposal plan shifted political power away from the states and towards he central government, which would coordinate the states’ activities for the benefit of the entire nation 7. Three-Fifths Compromise- this agreement established that only three fifths of a state’s slave population would count in determining its representation 8. The Federalist- series of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in the late 1780s to persuade the voters of New York to adopt the Constitution 9. Supremacy Clause- clause in the U.S. Constitution; states that the Constitution and all federal laws outrank state constitutions and state laws 10. Checks and Balances- limits imposed on all branches of a government by giving each branch the right to amend or void those acts of another that fall within its reach
Understanding Main Ideas: 1. Question: How did the weak national government created by the Articles of Confederation cause problems for the new nation? Answer: The Articles of Confederation were meant to be weak, because the colonists had just broken away from Britain. They created a weak government that didn’t have too much power and limited the national government. There was no executive power, congress could not regulate trade, they could not impose a tax on the states and money had to be borrowed. 2. Question: What were the provisions of the ordinances to organize and govern the Northwest Territory? Answer: Congress outlined in the 1787 ordinance the necessary steps to achieve statehood for areas in the northwest. The Ordinance set a precedent that would also be used for settling territories farther west. 3. Question: List and describe the main compromises reached during the constitutional convention. Answer: Three- fifths compromise- only three fifths of a state’s slave population would count in determining its representation; Virginia plan- shifted political power away from the states and towards he central government and The Great Compromise- granted each state an equal voice in the upper house. 4. Question: How does the Constitution balance power between the state and federal governments? Answer: The balance comes