Game playing as the selection of inefficient means – commonground that games is different from working. “Technical activity” where an agent employs the most efficient available means for reaching a goal, same with games goal oriented.
Games are goal-directed activities in which inefficient means are intentionally chosen. (ex. Racing game one goes around track rather than cutting straight across the infield. * Goal is to win the game. (however, in poker, if one repays a debt or you steal from another, is it still considered winning? (having more money than started) no.) * Winning in poker may be described as attempting to gain money by using the most efficient means available, but permitted by the rules, if so then playing poker is a technical activity as originally defined.
Games differ from technical activities, inefficient selection of means, accordingly, does not seem to be a satisfactory account of game playing.
By “technical activity” it is possible by gaining a trophy by lying about gold score, breaking the rule without destroying the original end of the game.
One cannot win the game unless one plays it, one cannot play the game unless one obeys the rules of the game. (Ex. Obeying “keep off the grass” to save one’s life”), however it is impossible to win the game and at the same time break one of its rules.
If cheating, it changes end from winning to gaining money.
Saving a life and keeping off the gras are values, hardly on the same footing as games.
Games differ from technical actions because of the inseperability of rules and ends in the former.
Demented Kantian – regard self to be bound by the most weighty philosophical considerations to honor all laws with equal respect.
Morality says that if something can be done only immorally it ought not to be done at all. The inseparability of rules and ends does not, therefore, seem to be a completely distinctive characteristics of games.
Games may be a way of life rather than just “games”, people devote lives into it, (ex. George as a golfer, and neglects his wife, if another cause rather than golf led George to neglect his duties, his wife may not have been as outraged.)
By these examples where games aren’t just games, he believes it’s sufficient to discredit the thesis that game rules cannot be the object of an ultimate or unqualified commitment.
Games do not require us to operate inefficiently with respect to winning, but require us to operate inefficiently in trying to achieve that state of affairs which counts as winning only when it is accomplished according to the rules of the game.
Play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by rules. Rules prohibit more efficient in favour of less efficient means, and where such rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity.
Goal directed activities which involve choice, ends and means are two of the elements of the game, rules are a third element.
1/ the goal, 2. The means of achieving the goal. 3/ the rules, 4/ the lusory attitude.
Goal – specific achievable state of affairs.
Lusory means – means which are permitted (legal or legitimate) in attempt to achieve prelusory goals
Constitutive rules – of games . rules of skill, intentional penalties
Lusory attitude – attitude of the game player must be an element in game playing because there has to be an explanation of that curious state of affairs
Games although more efficient means, must be ruled out.
Bureaucratic justification – no justification at all
Games are essentially different from ordinary activities of life.
Lusory attitude – the acceptance of constitutive rules just so the activity made possible by such acceptance can occur.
To play a game is to attempt to achieve a specific state of affairs (prelusory goal) using only means permitted by the rules (lusory means) where the rules prohibit