Over-innovation is also a common outcome of these culturally incompatible development strategies. Over-innovation refers to the creation of inappropriate, unworkable, or unnecessary organizations. Planners fail to identify the locally perceived needs and instead develop an abstract goal based on a strategy that was successful elsewhere. These over-innovated projects rarely have the support or cooperation of the beneficiaries because they require too much change in their daily lives and customary subsistence pursuits.
One good example of an over-innovation is a South American irrigation project that conflicted with established cropping patterns. “It attempted to get farmers to shift from perennial to annual crops at a time when the price of