1. Bentham believed in one ultimate moral principle, namely, the Principle of Utility. This principle requires us, in all circumstances, to produce the most happiness that we can.
2. To understand why the Principle of Utility was so radical, we have to appreciate what it leaves out of morality: Gone are all references to God or to abstract moral rules “written in the heavens “. Morally is no longer conceived ha faithfulness to some divinely given code or some set of inflexible rules.
3. The Utilitarian’s were, as I said, social reformers as well as philosophers. They intended their doctrine to make a difference, not only in thought but in practice. To illustrate this, we will briefly examine the implications of their ideas for three practical issues: euthanasia, marijuana, and the treatment of nonhuman animals.
1. Classical Utilitarianism, the theory of Bentham and Mill, can be summarized in three propositions:
a. The morality o an action depends solely on the consequences of the action, nothing else matters.
b. An action consequences matter only insofar as they involves the greater or lesser happiness of individuals.
c. In the assessment of consequences, each individual’s happiness gets “equal consideration “.
2. Define Hedonism: The thesis that pleasure is the one ultimate good-and pain is the ultimate evil.
3. Moore suggested that there are three obvious intrinsic goods -- pleasure, friendship, and aesthetic…