Ch. 7 Organization And Divisions Of Cns And Resting Vs. Action Potentials

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eviewHPS 4500 – Comprehensive Final Exam Review Spring 2013 NERVOUS SYSTEM – Ch. 7 Organization and divisions of CNS and PNS Neuron structure Electrical activity in neurons (resting vs. action potentials) - What makes them excitable - Going from a resting to action potentials (and back to resting) - - KNOW THIS Concentration of major ions at rest (general pattern, not specific #s) Na/K pump - - KNOW THIS Joint (3) & muscle proprioceptors (2) Reflexes and equilibrium Brain structures SKELETAL MUSCLE – Ch. 8 Skeletal muscle structure and microstructure Sarcomere structure Contractile proteins Characteristics of SM - - KNOW THESE - Biochemical properties - Contractile properties Excitation-contraction coupling – KNOW THIS SM changes due to activity (endurance or strength) and inactivity - - KNOW THIS Rigor mortis Muscle fatigue Force-Velocity Relationship Power-Velocity Relationship BIOENERGETICS – Ch. 3 Chem rxns Enodothermic vs. Exothermic Coupled rxns Oxidation-reduction rxns Enzymes (**you DO NOT need to know the classifications of enzymes) Factors that alter enzyme activity Fuels for exercise (carbs, fats, proteins) ATP synthesis and breakdown Overview of ATP-PC system Overview of glycolysis Overview of Krebs Overview of electron transport Lactic acid formation Lactic acid vs. lactate Fxns and reduction of NAD & FAD ATP tally per glucose molecule HORMONES – Ch. 5 Review the following major endocrine glands AND the fxns of the hormones released by each Anterior and posterior pituitary gland Thyroid gland Adrenal medulla (of the adrenal gland) Pancreas – KNOW THESE

Insulin and glucagon (don’t worry about somatostatin) For each hormone know: * it’s function/action * the effect that exercise has on it * Table 5.2 is a good starting point to organize your studying, but refer to notes for further details Hormonal control of substrate utilization Focal point of hormonal control…MAINTAIN BLOOD GLUCOSE (know the 4 processes) Hormonal response to ex and fasting in an effort to maintain blood gluc homeostasis  Insulin, glucagon and SNS effects on each  Changes of these during exercise and when trained Slow- vs. fast-acting hormones  Thyroxine, cortisol, growth hormone, catecholamines, insulin, glucagon and how they control blood gluc during ex  SNS effect on insulin and glucagon when blood gluc is constant during ex  Changes of all during exercise and when trained TEMPERATURE REGULATION – Ch. 12 & 24 Purpose of heat balance Normal core temp and methods for maintenance How exercise challenges temp homeostasis and how body regulates Hypothalamus control over temp regulation (anterior vs. posterior) Heat production (voluntary vs. involuntary) 4 processes for heat loss - - KNOW THESE Factors that affect evaporation rate - - KNOW THIS Heat storage during ex Head index Ex in heat (sweat rate, core temp) Cause of heat injury and symptoms Prevention guidelines Hydration/Prevention of dehydration Causes of impaired performance in hot environment Heat acclimatization Artificial heat training Ex in cold Hypothermia and contributing factors Water immersion (effects on temp changes) Insulating