Have you ever noticed the different types of vessels that are in the ocean? There are several types of vessels that are used in transportation. Some carry cargo from other places and some take passengers to different places. The size, type, and shape of the vessels has changed over the years with the advancement of technology. There are advancements being made in the size of ships, the stability, options on cruise ships, as well as being more environmentally friendly while reducing fuel costs.
In the article by Mary Davis she studied the occupational safety and regulatory compliance of commercial fishing in the United States. In the US commercial fishing is a job that is constantly listed as one of the most dangerous jobs. The study was done over a two year period and on 259 vessels. One area that was looked at during the study was the safety equipment. During the study it was found that the majority of the vessels all had the different types of safety devices. There were just a couple of items that most vessels did not have and they were: a survival craft, emergency position-indicating radio beacons, and an USCG safety decal. Compliance was the next area that was included in the study. “The actual safety equipment required on each vessel is determined based on a complicated matrix of where a vessel fishes, whether they are documented with the federal govern-mentor registered with the state, and the size of the vessel and crew,” (Davis, 2011). During the study it was found that the vessels that followed compliance was only 58%.
In the article by Kevin Strowbridge he talks about oil tankers and preventing oil spills. The first part of his article he gives a brief history of oil tankers. “Early oil tankers were simply single-hull wooden sailing ships used to transport non-polluting light oils, (Strowbridge, 2012). After WWII the oil tankers grew in size but were still single-hull like before but they were made of welded still instead of the wood. In 1989 there was an oil spill that would change the design of the hull of the oil tankers. The oil tankers went from a single hull to a double hull. The double hull had a space in between that was filled with water. By creating a double hull this would lessen the chances of an oil spill happening because if the first hull is punctured then water is what is spilled rather than oil. Other improvements that have been made to prevent oil spills is “improvements in the coating systems utilized within the ballast and oil tanks, subdivision of the cargo tanks, and quality of the construction material,” (Strowbridge, 2012).
In the article by Mark Langdon he talks about an alternative for reducing the cost of fuel for ships. “German firm Beluga Shipping has fitted its newest cargo vessel with a high-tech kite made by Hamburg-based SkySails,” (Langdon, 2008). They are testing the kite to see if it will reduce fuel costs any. They expect that the fuel cost can be reduced by 10-35 percent annually. There have been attempts in the past to use sails to help reduce fuel cost, some were not as successful as others. The key to get the benefit is to ensure that the route taken will be able to harness the prevailing winds. There are some good questions brought up in the article as well. One question is if a small kite is able to give some reduction in fuel cost then would a big kite give a bigger reduction in fuel cost. The next questions is how big can the kite be before it becomes too big for the crew to be able to handle it.
“Providing auxiliary hydrogen power to docked or anchored ships may soon be added to the list of ways in which hydrogen fuel cells can provide efficient, emissions-free energy,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2013). The study looked at using a floating barge then mounting a hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane on it. “Cold-ironing” is an alternative to auxiliary diesel engines that is used commonly. Cold-ironing is where a ship that