Visual ambiguity occurs when what we see could have more than one possible interpretation
Gestalt principles of Perceptual organization in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path.
Objects that are partially covered by other objects are seen as continuing behind the covering object.
Principle of pragnanz, also called the principle of
Principle of good continuation- points that when connected result
simplicity- Every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.
Principle of similarity-Similar things appear to be grouped together.
The dots are seen as arranged in columns. Goldstein, B. E. (2014). Sensation and Perception (9th ed.). Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth
These are usually seen as 5 rings rather than 9 separate shapes
Principle of proximity or nearness- Things that are near
Principle of common region - Elements that are within the same region of space appear to be grouped together Goldstein
each other appear to be grouped together.
Principle of uniform connectedness- a connected region of the same visual properties, such as lightness, color, texture, or motion, is perceived as a single unit
Principle of common fate- things that are moving
in the same direction appear to be grouped together.
Goldstein, B. E. (2014). Sensation and Perception (9th ed.). Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth
Bottoms-Up Perceptual Process
Template Matching-Every event or stimuli is compared to some
previously stored pattern, template or stimuli.
Featural Analysis – Breaking down a stimuli into its components, and
then making sense of it based off an understanding of the parts
Prototype Matching- sensory device registers a new stimuli, the device
then compares it with previously stored prototypes.
Top-Down Perceptual Process
Perceptual Learning- humans with experience in perceiving specific
stimuli learn to look for specific aspects of those same stimuli to pay attention to.
The Word Superiority Effect- letters are easier to perceive in contexts
that perceivers have experience with, like words.
What is perception in cognitive psychology?
This is how we understand and interpret
things through our sensory information.
We get this through our five senses.
Our five senses are smell, hear, taste, touch, and seeing.
Without this how could we relate things?
What is the role it plays?
Factors into the environment
As well it sees how it is composed in the
different senses and how we understand it
Perception is basically the first role in cognition. When we perceive we are understanding what is around us and our sense are guiding us.
A lot of information reaches the eye, but much is lost by the
time it reaches the brain (Gregory estimates about 90% is lost).
Therefore, the brain has to guess what a person sees based on
past experiences. We actively construct our perception of reality. Richard Gregory proposed that perception involves a lot of
hypothesis testing to make sense of the information presented to the sense organs.