Visual Ambiguity 1 Essay

Submitted By Capmor1973
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VISUAL AMBIGUITY

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Visual ambiguity occurs when what we see could have more than one possible interpretation
Gestalt principles of Perceptual organization in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path.
Objects that are partially covered by other objects are seen as continuing behind the covering object.

Principle of pragnanz, also called the principle of

Bruce Goldstein

Principle of good continuation- points that when connected result

simplicity- Every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.

Principle of similarity-Similar things appear to be grouped together.

The dots are seen as arranged in columns. Goldstein, B. E. (2014). Sensation and Perception (9th ed.). Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth

These are usually seen as 5 rings rather than 9 separate shapes

Principle of proximity or nearness- Things that are near

Principle of common region - Elements that are within the same region of space appear to be grouped together Goldstein

each other appear to be grouped together.

Principle of uniform connectedness- a connected region of the same visual properties, such as lightness, color, texture, or motion, is perceived as a single unit

Principle of common fate- things that are moving
Goldstein

in the same direction appear to be grouped together.

Goldstein, B. E. (2014). Sensation and Perception (9th ed.). Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth

Bottoms-Up Perceptual Process
 Template Matching-Every event or stimuli is compared to some

previously stored pattern, template or stimuli.
 Featural Analysis – Breaking down a stimuli into its components, and

then making sense of it based off an understanding of the parts
 Prototype Matching- sensory device registers a new stimuli, the device

then compares it with previously stored prototypes.

Top-Down Perceptual Process
 Perceptual Learning- humans with experience in perceiving specific

stimuli learn to look for specific aspects of those same stimuli to pay attention to.
 The Word Superiority Effect- letters are easier to perceive in contexts

that perceivers have experience with, like words.

What is perception in cognitive psychology?
This is how we understand and interpret

things through our sensory information.
We get this through our five senses.
Our five senses are smell, hear, taste, touch, and seeing.
Without this how could we relate things?

What is the role it plays?
Factors into the environment
As well it sees how it is composed in the

different senses and how we understand it
Perception is basically the first role in cognition. When we perceive we are understanding what is around us and our sense are guiding us.

Theoretical Issues
A lot of information reaches the eye, but much is lost by the

time it reaches the brain (Gregory estimates about 90% is lost).
Therefore, the brain has to guess what a person sees based on

past experiences. We actively construct our perception of reality. Richard Gregory proposed that perception involves a lot of

hypothesis testing to make sense of the information presented to the sense organs.
Our perceptions…