1. General Court: Massachusetts Bay legislature that tried Anne Hutchinson for heresy; banished leading Antinomians after trial. 2. John Winthrop: First governor and founder of Massachusetts Bay Colony (~1630). Envisioned a “city upon a hill” that would cause Anglicans in England to reform 3. Restoration Colonies: Colonies given to pay off royal debts in return for loyal citizens’ support of Charles II during the restoration. First was Carolina. 4. Leisler's Rebellion: America's response to the glorious revolution. Leisler took over a NY Harbor in support of King William and Mary. Established self government. 5. Quaker: Faith started by George Fox in Pennsylvania. Everyone has an “inner light” and can commune with God directly. 6. Navigation Acts: Governed commerce between England and colonies; Mercantilism! The colonists disliked them somewhat, but the acts benefitted them because it ensured a market for their goods. 7. Half-Way Covenant: Fewer protestants were becoming saints, so Massachusetts clergy allowed children of baptized adults, including non-saints, to be baptized in order to preserve the fading religion. 8. Dominion of New England: The king combined several colonies into one larger colony; self-governments dissolved, and crown-appointed governors placed in power instead. Gave more power to England, roused anger. Royal Centralization. 9. Bacon's Rebellion: Nathaniel Bacon led previous indentured servants and plundered Indian towns. Governor Berkeley condemned this action, which prompted Bacon and supporters to march to Jamestown (capital) and overthrow him. 10. Enlightenment: Advancement in political thought; skepticism towards belief not founded on science/logic. Idea that rationalism, logic, and reason solve all problems. Deism. 11. Great Awakening: Religious revival throughout the colonies. People started to question their religion and new ones were formed. Movement focused on travelling (itinerant) preachers called New Lights, who preached about hell. Old Lights (traditional, local preachers) disliked. 12. Albany Congress: First attempt at colonial unity. Seven colonies met (CT, MD, MA, NH, NY, PA, RI) in 1754. They discussed a treaty with the natives and unified defensive measures against the French. Failed, but represented unity. 13. French and Indian War: A war between Britain and France (who had Indian assistance). When the war ended, England began to enforce the Navigation Acts upon the colonies. This eventually led to the Revolution. 14. Writs of Assistance: General search warrants granted to British customs officials. Allowed them to search anywhere they wanted for illegally imported goods. Challenged in court when colonists declared they violated rights. Case lost. 15. Stamp Act: A direct tax imposed by the British. Required stamps for legal documents, newspapers, cards etc. Led to the slogan, “No taxation without representation!” An example of imperialism (not mercantilism). 16. Townshend Acts: External tax on tea, paint, lead, glass. Caused massive boycotts in the colonies. Economic issues forced England to repeal all taxes except for the one on tea. 17. Tea Act: Gave the East India Trading Company, who was struggling financially, a monopoly on the colonial tea market. The EITC didn’t have to pay tariffs, so tea prices actually went down. However, colonists still infuriated. Led to Boston Tea Party! 18. "Common Sense": Pamphlet by Thomas Paine. Inspired revolutionary sentiments by challenging that the monarchy wasn’t beneficial for the colonies. 19. Second Continental Congress: Represented the first organized government and war effort in the colonies. The Olive Branch Petition was written, not the declaration.
20. Saratoga: Turning point in the American Revolutionary War. General Benedict defeated General Burgoyne. Convinced France to help us in our war efforts. 21. Treaty of Paris of 1783: Ended the revolutionary war.
· Aztecs- Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
· Battle of Acoma- Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo…
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the
direction of the government from
Federalist to DemocraticRepublican, so it was called a
a nick name given to group of
judges that was appointed by John
Adams the night before he left
office. He appointed them to go to
the federal courts to have a long
term federalist influence, because
judges serve for life instead of
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court decision declaring
part of the Judiciary…