Chapter 18 Essay: Enlightened Monarchs Prompt: To what extent were the policies of the “enlightened monarchs” actually enlightened? The Enlightenment catalyzed several changes in western society. Thinkers of the Enlightenment utilized the scientific method developed by the thinkers of the Scientific Revolution to analyze humanity, leading to the development of the “social sciences” and coined the term “progress” in their belief that humans had the potential to create better societies and better people. Philosophes such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Paul d’Holbach reflected on whether our human nature was good or controlled, while the absolutist monarchs of France and the Catholic Church banned many publications. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant said that a truly enlightened monarch would allow the freedom of the press, and soon many monarchs such as Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph II of Austria tried to enact enlightened reforms. While they tended to be enlightened in their cultural reforms, they tended to fall short in their social ones. Frederick II of Prussia was only a culturally enlightened monarch. He reorganized the judicial system, eliminating the cruel and unusual punishment generally enacted upon the Prussian convicts, also favoring judicial impartiality. He was able to spur investment, reorganize the bureaucracy and revitalize the agricultural economy. However, he still maintained a largely absolutist state. His true failure is depicted in his lack of social reform, however. Under him, the nobles simply became stronger and the serfs further subjugated, and he allowed full control by the Junker nobility. His religious toleration did not extend to all, defying the Voltairian concept of being open to all religions. In that sense, he was able to enact sweeping cultural reforms, but unable to fix the social problems as recommended by the Enlightenment thinkers. Next, Catherine the Great was an enlightened monarch in her ability to enact cultural reforms but failed by not enacting social ones. Catherine invited western thinking and painting to enter Russia, maintaining frequent contact with a French salon owner, Madame du Chatelet. She improved education, created a new law code and supported Diderot’s Encyclopedia. However, under her rule, the peasants were the most subjugated they had ever been. She savagely crushed their revolt, and granted the nobles tax-free access to controlling the serfs. She also denied the Jews religious toleration, again opposing Voltaire, despite Moses Mendelssohn’s appeals. Her inability to change or equalize the social structure showed her as a not-so-enlightened monarch despite her other progressive reforms. Finally, Joseph of Austria shows the eventual inability of a monarch during this age to be truly enlightened. Joseph’s mother before him, Maria Theresa, had fought the War of the Austrian Succession. Yet, she still enacted broad bureaucratic reforms. Joseph continued those reforms, and met the cultural criterion of the Enlightenment. He provided religious toleration for all, and banned serfdom, requiring them to be paid in cash. Unfortunately, such as infrastructure was not in place, and thus his successor Leopold repealed his reforms. Joseph’s truly progressive thinking modeled him as an enlightened monarch, however, his social attempts all ultimately failed. The enlightened monarchs Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph of Austria all enacted sweeping reforms, but ultimately did not pass criteria for being considered an enlightened monarch due to their failure in the social sector, despite success in the cultural. The Enlightenment called for a more radical equalization and set the stage for revolutions which would fight for the liberties and basic human rights outlined by John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and other Enlightenment thinkers at any
s during the Age of
Voltaire, a former Enlightenment thinker, was known for his religious toleration and
criticism towards traditional religious views. In
, Voltaire wrote a letter on the
english contradicting their ideas. Voltaire also wrote a book called Treatise On Toleration, as
, in which he stressed the fact that other countries such as
England and Arabia that practiced religious toleration had no problems.
New thinking and wr…
philosophy’s role was to change the world
A spirit of rational criticism was to be applied to everything including religion and politics
As philosophers disagreed each generation became more radical as it built over the old one, however Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot dominated the land.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu was a French noble.
His famous work The Spirit of Laws(1748) was a study of governments
Discovered three basic governments, Republics (Small), Despotism…
What is western civilization?
A population that shares a single intellectual framework, often held together by some combination of shared religious beliefs, economic necessity, and political organization
A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a variety of common elements
What is western about western civilization?
Civilization of western Europe?
Where is the line between East/West Europe
concepts of freedom that influenced its future.
Joseph II was a Holy Roman Emperor during the years of 1765 to 1790. He was the son of Francis I and Maria Theresa and was born at Vienna on March 13, 1741. He grew up learning from the writings of Voltaire, and the example of Frederick the Great of Prussia. He grew very tired of his mother as she ruled because she granted him no freedom to make his own path and follow his instincts. From his father’s death to his mother’s death, Joseph ruled the Hapsburg…
Believed man was born with natural rights: life, liberty, property. (mentioned in
the Declaration of Independence)
● Father of classical liberalism (idea of limited government)
● Wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Letter Concerning
● “We are like chameleons, we take our hue and the color of our moral
character, from those who are around us.”
● His scientific method was the changed ideal of scientific knowledge.
● Born April 5, 1588 and died December…
didn't go as intended, although it still was able to convey equality and the idea of the Enlightenment such has separation of powers, religious toleration and natural rights into actuality among the people.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is an example of this Enlightenment idea happening. It talks about how men and citizens are assured religious freedom, freedom of speech and press and inalienable rights. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… The purpose of all political…
Glorious revolution – the opponent of James II
Thomas hubbes – lived through the civil war
John Locke – another English philosopher
English bill of rights – declared that parliament would choose who would rule the country
Toleration act – granted some religious freedoms to dissenters
questioned the special role of the clerical hierarchy (including the pope)
B) Luther’s ideas provoked a massive schism in Catholic Christendom
c) fed on political, economic, and social tension, not just religious differences
d) commoners were attracted to the new religious ideas as a tool for protest against the whole social order
ii. German peasant revolts in the 1520s
4. many women were attracted to Protestantism, but the Reformation…
god-like angels on top.
(Important: Northern Europe = Details in paintings, Italy = Perspective and Proportions)
Compare the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic (counter) Reformation of the 16th century regarding reform of religious doctrine and practices.
- Luther’s 95 Theses was the first break from Catholicism, which was a stand against indulgences.Catholics = liked people to pay for guaranteed salvation. Protestantism denounced Pope’s authority to give salvation. Catholics…
17th Century (1600’s)
Scale is large
Chiaroscuro (huge contrast between light and dark)
Artists &Architects and their Art& Architecture (Look up the art/architecture on mypisd.net)
The Calling of Saint Matthew
St. Theresa in Ecstasy
St. Peter’s Colonnade
Judith and Holofernes