NOTE: This set of questions is just to help you concentrat e on important topics you should know by the end of this course. This in NO WAY means that the final exam’s content will be just from the questions in this list.
Chapter 1 (Exploring Life)
1. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization from the simplest to the most complex level.
2. W hat are the two major dyn amic processes of any ecosystem?
3. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
4. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback.
5. W hat is homeostasis?
6. W hat are the three domains of life?
7. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotic life.
8. Distinguish between discovery science and hypothesis - based science.
9. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.
10. D escribe what is meant by a controlled experiment.
Chapter 2 (The Chemical Context of Life)
11. Distinguish between an element and a compound.
12. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms:
a. neutron and proton.
b. atomic number and mass number
13. Explain how the atomic number and mass number of an atom can be used to determine the number of neutrons.
14. Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different.
15. Distinguish among nonpolar covalent , polar covalent and ionic bonds.
16. Distinguish between hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions .
17. D efine the terms energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy.
Chapter 3 ( Water and the Fitness of the Environment)
18. W ith the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are:
b. capable of hydrogen bonding with four neighboring water molecules
19. List four characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding.
20. D efine cohesion and adhesion.
21. Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water:
a. Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface.
b. Ice floats on water.
c. Humans sweat to cool themselves on hot days.
22. Distinguish among a solute, a solvent, and a solution.
23. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.
24. D efine acid, base, and pH.
25. Explain how acids and bases may directly or in directly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
26. Using the bicarbonate buffer system as an example, explain how buffers work.
Chapter 4 (Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life)
27. Explain how carbon’s electron configuration accounts for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules.
28. D escribe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these molecules are hydrophobic. 29. Distinguish among the three types of isomers: structural, geometric, and enantiomer. 30. N ame the major functional groups found in organic molecules. Draw and describe the basic structure of each functional group.
Chapter 5 (The Structure and Function of Macromolecules)
31. List the four major classes of macromolecules.
32. Distinguish between monomers and polym ers.
33. Distinguish between condensation and hydrolysis r eactions.
34. Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
35. D escribe the building- block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats and phospholipids.
36. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids .
37. Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide.
38. List the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group.
39. N ame two typ es of secondary protein structure. W hat type of chemical bonds stabilizes the secondary structure.
40. W hat types of chemical bonds stabilize the tertiary protein structure. These bonds are formed between the R-groups of the amino acids OR the