Professor Michael Morlan
November 13, 2014
Corrections research and evaluation paper The correctional system we know today is significantly one different from the past. Hundreds of years ago, the form of correcting someone who committed a crime involved pain and suffering. It was until the 1800s that the development in the prison system began. In today’s correctional system, many dangers such as staff endangerment, overcrowding have compiled up to form chaos. Correctional administration ensures tasks are completed for use of the facility operational use. There are means of security, technology which officers and management utilize to control the correctional environments. Inmates receive educational and treatment programs as a form rehabilitation, so when they are released, they can apply in the outside world. Probation and parole are two and juvenile corrections are also part of the corrections system.
Past, present, and future trends
In the earlier days, the common correctional form of punishment is by causing pain or suffering. Society used punishment to teach right from wrong because it was believed that punishment helps maintain moral order. The earliest forms of punishment were by either by brutality or torture, beating, branding and mutilation and even death. Punishments that were given to the offender were an attempt to resemble the crime committed. In the 1700 and 1800s offenders were also transported or deported out of England. Offenders also earned marks known as "brand" mainly in the person's forehead, face or hand. For instance, adulterers received a mark in their forehead with the letter A; thieves received a carved letter T in their hands. (Seiter, R, 2010).
In the early 1800's, there was a need to develop the prison system. During this time, the Pennsylvania system which focused on solitary confinement of prisoners was already in place. This system was based on the belief that prisoners would self-examine their mistakes, and through solitary confinement have the time to think about their mistakes and repent. The inmates were encouraged to read the bible and were not allowed contact with other inmates. Later on, laws provided for the prison to use the inmates as laborers. The inmates did work such as weaving tailoring and shoemaking; they did this inside their personal cells. Labor in prisons has changed over time, in the beginning it was designed as punishment with no pay and resulting in many deaths and injuries. Over time laws have changed the purpose and practice of prison laborers. In 1935 Hawes-Cooper Act was passed so that prisons could employ prisoners to make products that are sold the federal government such as license plates. In 1979 Justice System Improvement Act provided employment opportunities for inmates to allow them to be employed by private companies, as well as learning trade work that could benefit them upon release. Prison labor has impacted many different areas by allowing the prisoners to learn new trades and discipline for their benefit, and allowing the prisons to bring in revenue to support its expenses. (Seiter, R, 2010).
Today’s trend in the correctional system is the rising is prison violence associated with gangs. Corrections faculty are being threatened by inmates, therefore, putting their lives at risk. A study conducted in 2012 found that 25 percent of the faculty in institutions reported assault from gang members, and 50 percent reported being verbally threatened by a gang member inside the institution. This trend can lead to an arising issue of security. Correction officers will have a difficult duty of keeping inmates safe and at peace inside jails because their safety is at risk. Another issue that is affecting institutional corrections is budget cuts. When states face serious budget cuts the corrections system has a direct negative effect. The state of California is facing