April 29, y
War of 1812
War of 1812 was a war fought between Great Britain and the United States. This war started nearly thirty years after the Revolutionary War. War of 1812 was fought on American soil. President Madison was the president at this time. On June 1st,1812 President Madison asked Congress to declare war. On June 5th, House of Representatives held a vote for war, the vote outcome was 79 to 49. That not being good enough Senate held a smaller vote of 19 to 13. It was the southern and western states that wanted war while the northeast feared that they might lose trade across the Atlantic, since they illegally traded with foreign countries. New York and New England voted against the war because they will bear the most of the attacks from the British ships and military. Many people wonder if the voting process was fair since Congress voted for many of the people. Federalists in Congress were opposed to war while 80 percent of Republicans wanted to go to war. June 16th,1812 British minister revoked the restraints on the United States trade. His actions were too late, on June 18th, James Madison signed the paper to declare war. The main cause of the war was the violation of America’s shipping rights. Madison signed the paper to declare war for three reasons. He wanted to protest the Royal Navy to interfere with American shipping, to stop Britain from encouraging Indian attacks on America, and to stop British from taking sailors from American ships. War Hawks yearned for war. They tried to take over Canada and Florida, which they ended up with neither of the two. Our nation wasn’t prepared finically or militarily, James Madison didn't take this into consideration. Not helping finically, in 1811 the Bank of United States closed. Our army contained only 3,287 men, men that were poorly prepared for war. Congress opened up the military where 35,00 men could be entered into the army. By war time only 18,500 men had been recruited, only because they were promised benefits for going into the military. The British army had 250,000 men, the United States needless to say was outnumbered. Only part of the military that was doing good was the United States Navy. The Navy contained sixteen ships at this time. United States Navy brought the only victories in the first part of the war. It didn't take long for British to cover the coast, everywhere but New England. Three wars were fought in the War of 1812. One of the wars was fought along the Atlantic and Chesapeake Bay and middle Atlantic Coast. The next war was in the South, Alabama, Mississippi, and West and East Florida; Battle of New Orleans in 1815. During this battle General Andrew Jackson invaded the Creeks and Spanish land. The third war could be called the Canadian-American War was fought in northern Indiana and Ohio, regions around Lakes Huron and Michigan, southeastern Michigan. The War of the North essentially turned into a civil war, Canadians loyal to Britain fighting Americans. Bloodshed was everywhere. Indians fought off American conquests with British weapons. General William Hull feared a massacre was going to happen to Detroit’s citizens if he pursued the British military and the armed indians helping the military. William Hull surrendered his army to the British bluff and bravado. This withdrawal shocked the nation and humiliated the Republicans. General Hull was accused as a traitor and he was later sentenced to death due to his act. American naval control forced British to leave Upper Canada. America beat them October 5th at the Battle of the Thames. In 1813 was started down south. The indians at this point had allied with the british, “Red Stick” Creeks. This group attacked Fort Mims, which is located on the Alabama River in the town of Mobile. This group killed 553 men, women, and children, they butchered and scalped half of them. The act they made outraged America. Jackson gathered 2,500 men from his home state of Tennessee.