Chapter 12 Guide
1. Harford Convention- In Hartford, Connecticut in 1814, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire held a convention to discuss the War of 1812 (they all opposed the war because it didn’t benefit them). In the end, they agreed that they wanted to change the Constitution: a 2/3 vote required by Congress to declare war, establish an embargo, and admit new states to the nation (they didn’t want to grow).
2. Treaty of Ghent- The Treaty of Ghent was actually signed before the Battle of New Orleans on December 24, 1814 because many people knew that Andrew Jackson was going to win that battle. This was used as an “armistice” in order to stop fighting between the U.S. and Britain. As a result of the war, there were no changes in territory, property, or borders. Russian then offered to be a mediator, considering John Quincy Adams is the minister. The Treat of Ghent ended the War of 1812.
3. Battle of Horseshoe Bend- In the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Andrew Jackson proved to be a successful general. It was Jackson against the Creek Indians (“Red Sticks”). They tried to stay neutral, but wanted to fight westward expansion. In the end, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek War, resulted in Jackson moving the Cherokees to Oklahoma, and the settlement of both Georgia and Alabama.
4. Francis Scott Key- During the War of 1812, the Star-Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key as he watched the battle between Britain and the U.S. take place at Fort McHenry. At the time, Key had boarded a British ship to release Dr. William Banes, but he was captured, so he couldn’t warn the Americans. What inspired him to write the poem was that the American flag was still waving proudly at Fort McHenry even while the war was going on.
5. The Prophet- Prophet, known as Tenskwatawa, was the brother of Tecumseh. There plan was to prevent the whites from settling further in the west. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippacanoe after William Henry Harrison was sent as general. His plan (along with other war hawks) was to get rid of the Indians in order to settle and grow as a nation.
6. Tecumseh- Tecumseh was the brother of Tenskwatawa, also known as “Prophet”. He wanted to establish a confederacy in order to stop the whites from moving west. He hated the whites because they kept taking the Indians’ land. He did agree that the settlers could only settle in their territory if all Indians agreed to it.
7. Henry Clay- Henry Clay was one of the three most important people during the “Era of Good Feelings”. His main representation for the west was for expansion. His biggest accomplishment was the American System which established a new national bank (2nd Bank of the U.S.), a protective tariff to buy only American goods, and internal improvements (transportation by roads and canals).
8. Macon’s Bill No. 2- In 1810, Congress passed Macon’s Bill No. 2. This bill stated that if either Britain or France got rid of their commercial restrictions, the U.S. would cancel trade with the other nation. James Madison didn’t like this because he believed it made other nations think we couldn’t survive without Britain or France.
9. Andrew Jackson- Andrew Jackson was the most important general during the War of 1812, as a result of the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. He also traveled to Florida where he killed two Indian chiefs and two British subjects. This resulted in the Florida Purchase Treaty which gave the U.S. the state of Florida (with help from John Quincy Adams).
10. John Quincy Adams- John Quincy Adams was a major contributor to the Treaty of Ghent and the ceding of Florida from Spain. He planned the Treaty of Ghent and after Andrew Jackson had killed the Indians and British subjects, convinced many people not to punish Jackson. Adams also helped to plan and draft the Monroe Doctrine.
11. Sectionalism- Sectionalism is a particular interest to one section of the nation. This mostly