The world’s water source exists naturally in many different forms and is located in the “air, on the surface, below the ground, and in the oceans” (Shiklomanov, 1989). Freshwater accounts for only 2.5% of the Earth’s water, with a large portion frozen in glaciers. The remaining freshwater is found as groundwater, which is being used to supply drinking water and support farming, and agriculture in dry locations.. The resource is considered renewable as long as groundwater is not withdrawn faster than nature can replenish it, but in many dry regions the groundwater does not renew itself or only very slowly.There is earth is composed of approximately 30 percent of the world’s fresh water is in liquid form and therefore potentially accessible for human use such as drinking to prepare food, washing clothes, and necessary functions which water is a major component.
Water Distribution systems are a very important component in ensuring safe drinking water. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (2011) “Water distribution systems are large networks of storage tanks, valves, pumps, and pipes that transport finished water to consumers (Para 2) . About 96% of all liquid freshwater can be found underground. The remaining small fraction is on the surface or in the air. The Hydrologic cycle (water cycle) is a mechanism in which water moves from the air to the earth in the form of precipitation, then back down to the atmosphere as evaporation. By predicting the water cycle thought earth it allows scientist to predict how much water is present in various parts of the earth. (Dingman, 1994)
Water distributed and intended for human consumptions should be safe to consume, free from pathogenic agents, and harmful chemical substances, (Park 1997). Without ample safe drinking water, communities cannot live healthy, as water is a vital component to basic human survival. Water resources face a host of serious threats, such as pollution, climate change, run off from farming, and exposure to pesticides, which can cause chronic health problems in humans.
Pathogens are disease producing micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, when found in drinking water are can cause a host of chronic diseases. Pathogens get into drinking water if the source is contaminated by sewage, animal waste, or when the distribution system itself has issues such as lead based pipes. Pathogens exposure can cause chronic health problems such as hepatitis; they can also cause gastroenteritis, salmonella infection. (Miller, 2004) The safe water drinking act contains primary water standards that must be adhered to by water supplies to ensure the safety of drinking water on public health. (Morgan, 2003) This law which originally took affect in 1974 was amended in 1986 and later in 1996 which requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and…