Module 01.00 Review
Data (Lessons 01.03 through 01.05)
How to analyze data
The analysis of data from an experiment compares known and unknown values in the data. The experiments are always repeated several times to make sure the results are valid. When an experiment is valid, it means the results are consistent over time and reproducible by you or by another scientist following the same procedure. Based on the results of the farmer's experiment, he would analyze the data by creating charts or graphs of the growth of the plants over time.
Be able to pull out the data that is stated from a table, chart, graph
Be able to identify how an outcome could result from the data given in a table, chart, graph
Be able to draw conclusions from evidence/data
Scientific Method (Lessons 01.03 through 01.05 plus 01.09)
What are the 6 steps of the scientific method; know them in order
The 6 steps of the scientific method are hypothesis, research, purpose, experiment, analysis, and conclusion.
Be able to describe what happens in each step of the scientific method
Conclusion: Based on the analysis of the collected data, a scientist will refer back to the original hypothesis and ask: Was the original hypothesis correct or incorrect? Sometimes this is very simple and the conclusion is obvious. On occasion, finding that the hypothesis is incorrect leads to new discoveries. Sometimes, the results are inconclusive, and the scientist must design a new experiment or complete further research. Analysis: The analysis of data from an experiment compares known and unknown values in the data. The experiments are always repeated several times to make sure the results are valid. When an experiment is valid, it means the results are consistent over time and reproducible by you or by another scientist following the same procedure. Based on the results of the farmer's experiment, he would analyze the data by creating charts or graphs of the growth of the plants over time. Experiment: The farmer would then design and carry out a test to try to get an answer to the original question and observation. The farmer would record the data on a data sheet. He will also want to write down the steps he used to carry out his experiment in case it needs to be repeated. This is called the procedure. The farmer would make sure his procedure and data are accurately reported so that he could share the information with others or repeat the procedure at a later time. Variables: Scientists use experiments to search for relationships in nature and find answers to their questions. In other words, they design experiments to test if a change in one quantity or factor will affect another factor in the way their hypothesis predicted. These changing quantities are called variables. A variable is any factor or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types. An experiment usually has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled. The farmer would want to list all of the variables in his experiment, such as the amount of sunlight the plants receive, the temperature, the nutrients in the soil, the amount of water in the soil, and the type of plants. Independent: The independent variable is the one that the scientist has chosen to change within an experiment in order to test the hypothesis. A good experiment should test, or vary, only one variable so the scientist can be confident that the observations made are a result of the changes made to the independent variable. The farmer would change only the amount of nutrients in the soil. If he changed more than this variable, he would not know if the answer to his original question was correct. Dependent: The scientist will observe what happens to the dependent variable over the course of the experiment to see how it responds to the change made to the independent variable. The observations made and data collected regarding the dependent variable are caused by, and depend on, the changes