Week 1 Intro Notes Essay

Submitted By Ingrid-Milera
Words: 634
Pages: 3

Week 1: 9/18
Pathophysiology Thurs 11:00am
Professor Slater

Pathology
Can be used for cancer study but also for other diseases
There will be an optional 20-30 min part of the module to review anatomy and physiology (i.e. cardiovascular system, pulmonary system)
Etiology
What causes something
Iatrogenic
Things we do to patients when they are in our care (i.e. staph infections, medication errors)
Multifactorial
Example: type 2 diabetes can be caused by being overweight, eating unhealthy, many things
Risk factors
Example: someone who smokes is at risk for lung cancer
Modifiable
Hypertension
Obesity
Smoking
Physical inactivity
Non-modifiable
Age
Gender
Race and ethnicity
Family history
Trigger
A little different than risk factors
Triggers exist for asthma attack or an allergic reaction
Sign vs. Symptom
Sign is something we can see
Symptom is subjective
Clinical manifestation
Local is an injury in one place, like hurting your ankle
Systemic happens to many places in the body, like a cold
Acute is new
Chronic is something that happens over a long period of time
Remission is when disease goes away
Exacerbation is when you come out of remission and things are worse
Evidence-based practice
Context of care
Nurse experience
Clinical manifestations
Health-illness continuum
What's healthy for one person might not be good for another person
There are many people out there who go undiagnosed because they fall under a normal mean
There are also other people who are diagnosed for a disease they don't have just because they fall under the mean in those with the disease
Levels of prevention
Primary is attempting to prevent disease before it happens
Immunizations (i.e. flu shot)
Lifestyle (i.e. diet, smoking, alcohol intake)
Sunscreen
Use of condoms
Secondary is addressing the beginning stages of disease
Skin cancer screening
PAP smears
Pregnancy test
DRE
PSA
Tertiary is trying to manage the disease
Chemotherapy
Tetanus after stepping on rusty nail
Physical therapy
Chapter 1: Introduction to Cellular Changes and Adaptations
Many cells make up tissues
Many tissues make up organs
Multiple organs make up organ systems
Abnormal cells (all reversible until we make it to anaplasia)
Atrophy
Smaller cell size
Hypertrophy
Larger cell size
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cell size
i.e. callous
Metaplasia
Changes in mature cells to other mature cells
Smokers lose ciliated columnar epithelia and will be replaced with squamous columnar epithelia
Cervix have changes in epithelia
Dyplasia
Cells are no longer mature
Different shapes and sizes
Still differentiated
Still reversible
Considered pre-cancerous
Anaplasia
Undifferentiated cells
No longer reversible; this damage is…