1. Karl Marx (1818-1883): economist, sociologist and philosopher; founder of Marxism; author of Das Kapital (translation: Capital; vol. 1, 1867) co-author of The Communist Manifesto and other pro-socialist and pro-communist texts.
2. George Stephenson (1781-1848): inventor of the locomotive.
3. William Lovett (1800-1877): founder of the London Working Men’s Association; co-author of The Six Points of the Charter and other pro-working-class texts.
4. David Ricardo (1772-1823): influential economist; author of Principles of Political Economy (1817).
5. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832): British philosopher; founder of modern utilitarianism; author of Fragments on Government (1776) and The Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789).
6. Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825): early socialist pioneer; liberal French aristocrat; war veteran; ideological father of technocracy.
7. Robert Owen (1771-1858): major British contributor to the early socialist tradition; self-made cotton manufacture; established the community of New Harmony, Indiana; was the moving force behind the organization of the Grand National Union.
8. Charles Fourier (1772-1837): French intellectual counterpart of Owen; commercial salesperson; believed the industrial order ignored the passionate side of human nature; advocated the construction of phalanxes.
9. Friedrich Engels (1820-1895): economist, socialist and philosopher; author of The Condition of the Working Class in England; co-author of The Communist Manifesto and other pro-socialist and pro-communist texts.
10. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873): nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor in late 18th century; became a French dictator; became Emperor Napoleon III; changed France from republicanism to Caesarism.
1. What inventions were particularly important in the development of industrialism? What changes did industrialism make in society? Why were the years covered in this chapter so difficult for artisans? What is it meant by “the proletarianization of workers”?
Some of the inventions that were particularly important in the development of industrialism are the railway, textile machinery, and the steam engine. Industrialism created a greater separation between the upper and lower socio-economic classes, it created many health hazards that would negatively affect the working-class, and the class divide created a social detachment with the upper-class citizens having a perception that the working-class was inferior to them. The years covered in this chapter, 1830-1850, were difficult for artisans because it became fairly difficult for them to have control over their trades and to continue to exercise corporate or guide direction. The “proletarianization of workers” is a term used to indicate the entry of workers into a wage economy and their gradual loss of significant ownership of the means of production, such as tools and equipment, and of control over the conduct of their own trades.
2. In what ways did the industrial economy change the working-class family? What roles and duties did various family members assume? Most specifically, how did the role of women change in the new industrial era?
The industrial economy changed the working-class family by essentially creating and suppressing the working-class through negative work and home environments. The roles and duties various family members assumed were generally that the father and children would share the workload in the industrial field and the mother and infants would stay home to maintain the home environment. The role of women changed in the new industrial era by women becoming the maintainer of home life, giving a suppressed outlook on women because of these homely duties.
3. What were the goals of the working class in the new industrial society, and how