1. Henry Bessemer (1830-1898): English inventor whose steelmaking process established the town of Sheffield as a major manufacturing centre.
2. Henry Ford (1863-1947): American industrialist; founder of the Ford Motor Company; sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
3. W. H. Smith (1825-1891): English businessman; politician; former British Secretary of State for War.
4. George Haussmann (1809-1891): Prefect of the Seine Department in France; chosen by the Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris.
5. Robert Koch (1843-1910): German physician; pioneering microbiologist; founder of modern bacteriology.
6. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797): English writer; philosopher; advocate of women's rights.
7. John Stuart Mill (1804-1858): co-author of The Subjection of Women (1869); British philosopher; political economist; civil servant; influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy.
8. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929): led the moderate National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies; English feminist; intellectual; political leader; union leader; author.
9. Karl Marx (1818-1883): economist, sociologist and philosopher; ideological founder of Marxism; author of Das Kapital (translation: Capital; vol. 1, 1867) co-author of The Communist Manifesto and other pro-socialist and pro-communist texts.
10. William II: the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (r. 1888-1918); allowed antisocialist legislation to expire.
1. How was European society transformed by the second industrial revolution? What new industries developed, and which do you think have the greatest impact on the twentieth century? How do you account for European economic difficulties in the second half of the nineteenth century?
It lead to massive expansion of industry across most of Europe by the beginning of the 20th century. Automobile and electrical apparatus (wireless) industries were developed at his time as well as shipping, and the standard of living improved dramatically for most Europeans despite. Some setbacks due to financial speculation has led to the sort of cycle of boom and bust in commerce ever since. Fundamentally it meant that warfare could eventually be mechanized, an industrial approach to killing which characterized the Nazi regime, and fuelled a drive to expand into other territories in the search for raw materials and markets. I account for European economic difficulties in the second half of the nineteenth century with the justification that the crash of the Vienna Stock Exchange, the Franco-Prussian War, and inflation due to capitalist ventures each had the largest impacts on the economic difficulties of this time period.
2. How would you describe the living conditions in European cities during the late nineteenth century? Why were European cities redesigned during this period? In what way is where they redesigned? Why were housing and health key issues for urban reform? Be specific in your examples.
Although the industrial revolutions of Europe had taken place in the early 19th century, they were primarily still suffering the effects. This included disease, pollution, overcrowded accommodation, and exploitation. In the Russian Empire (who went through rapid industrialization in the late 19th century) people were dying from starvation, conditions were appalling, and it would later lead to a revolution in the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution and the wealth of the nations relied on large populations of healthy and relatively content people. Without the reforms which led to a content population the factories would be useless.
3. What was the status of European women in the second half of the nineteenth century? Why did the growth